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" These be the days of vcng;eance."-^C^?9jST. 
" Yet a remnimt shall return." — IsavaA." * V 

• * 

POULTKEY, (^rr) 



JStstrict of ®rrmont, To wit : 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the olevfenth day of 
June, in the forty-seventh year of the Independence of the 
United States of America, Smith & Shute, of the said Dis- 
trict, have deposited in this otfice, the title of a book, the 
right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words follow- 
ing, to wit : " View of the Hebrews ; exhibiting the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem; the certain restoration of Judah and Is- 
rael ; the present state of J udah and Israel ; and an address 
of the prophet Isaiah, relative to their restoration. By 
Ethan Smith, Pastor of a Church in Poultney, (Vt.) — 
'These be the days of vengeance.' — Christ. *Yet a rem- 
nant shall return.' — ^Isaiah." In conformity to the act of 
the Congress of the United States, entitled " an act for the 
encouragement of learning, by secnrirg the copies ♦ f map?, 
charts, and books, to the authors and j lopriptors of such co- 
pics, during the times therein mentioned." 

Clerk of the District of Fermont, 
A true copy of record, examined and sealed by 

J. GOVE, Clerk. 




Few historical events have been of such interest 
to the world, as the destruction of Jerusalem bv the 
Romans, about forty years after the ascension of our 
blessed Lord. This remark is true, if the event 
be contemplated simply as a piece of history. But 
when it is admitted that the event was a striking ful- 
filment of denunciations of wrath uttered by Christ 
on bis persecutors, and by ancient prophets on the 
same i)eople ; also that it furnished a most brilliant 
type of the final destruction of Antichrist in the last 
days ; it becomes far more interesting. This inter- 
est must be felt at this period, when tlie great events 
of the last days connected with the restoration of 
the Hebrews, are in a train of incipient fulfilment. 
The signs of the times are important on this genera- 
tion. For upwards of thirty years they have been 
assuming an aspect, with which the Christian world 
ought to feel deeply impressed ; and which will is- 
sue in the battle of that great day of God Almighty, 
and in the millennial kingdom of Christ. 

Tlie restoration of God's ancient people is to be 
as *' life from the dead" to the Gentile world. Some 
h.ive queried whether they are literally to be res- 
tored to Palestine. It hence becomes important to 
examine the prophetic scriptures upon this subject* 
This the writer has attempted to do ; and will exhi- 
bit the rasult of his enquiries, in the following pa* 

To ascertain the present state of the Hebrews, 
must be a matter of interest ; and especial!}^ the state 
of the ten tribes of Israel. This, in the following 
work is attempted. Also an explanation is given of 
an address from the prophet Isaiah to some Chris- 
tian people, relative to the restoration of the ancient 
people of God ; and probably this people is Ameri- 
ca. If it is ascertained that the ten tribes are to be 
restored with the Jews, in the last days ; they must 
be now in existence, and they must come to the 
knowledge of the Christian world about this time : 
for the time of their restoration must be near. And 
it is believed they arc coming to light with ample 
evidence. This must deeply interest the Christian 
part of the world. 

It would be strangfe if so great a section of Chris- 
tendom as our United States, could claim no appro- 
priate address in the prophetic writings. And it is 
tliought to be capable of being shown, with a satis- 
fictory degree of evidence, that sucii an address is 
indeed found ; and one of great interest at this day. 
The writer acknowledges himself to be affected 
with this part of the subject ; and he would rejoice 
to be the humble instrument of exciting a corres- 
ponding feeling in the minds of his christian breth- 


Poidiney, July, 1823. 

The Pawlet Association certify, that they have heard the 
Kev. K. Smith read a cousiderable i^rt o*f his " ViKW of 
Tiir. Hebrews r' that thfjy do highly approve of the plan 
a)ul execution of ihe work ; do wish its pul^lication ; and cor- 
fclinlly recommend it to the perusal of all classes of people. 
Voted, imanimously. 

Attest, RUFUS CUSHMAN, Scribe. 






The land of promise was long a land of won- 
ders. The Hebrew nation there was, for many 
centuries, the cradle of the true and only 
church of God on earths There glorious 
things were wrought for her^lvBCtion. Patriarchs 
had there prayed, sacrificed an^|>)iQ(i^ed« There 
Prophets had prophesied ; and this jE^hiughty had 
often made bare his holy ann* There'^life^eoplc 
had too often apostatized ; had been expelled 
from their Canaan ; and again mercifully restor- 
ed. There the ten tribes^wjjfijrael had renounced 
the house of David, and Ifi^.God ; and were 

hence banished to some unknQj^n region of the 
world, to the present day; while the Jews were 
still retained in the covenant of their God. There 
God, manifest in the flesh, made his appearance 
on earth ; — performed his public ministry ; — 
atoned for the sins of the world ; — and ascended 
to glory. There the tirst heralds of the gospel 
dispensation commenced their ministry ; and 
thence the wonderful scheme of grace was pro- 
pagated through the nations* 


I oft 


Jtiru&iilcin Wd?- Hie CRpItal of Uii^ Ciirtlilj' CH 
nttun. Glorious things were spoken of this city 
of our God. " Beautiful for siliiation, the joy 
of the witole earth, was this Mount Zion on the 
aides of the north, the city of the Great King.'* 
This, for many centuries, might he called Cod's 
Capital on earth. God said, alluding primarily 
to this city, '• For the Lord hath choseil Zion to 
be an habitation for himself. Here will 1 dwell, 
for 1 have desired it." Here great things were 
done in dyfine faithfulness ; which led the psalm- 
ist to say ; " God ia known in her palaces for a 
refuge. For lo, the Kings were assembled ; they 
passed by together. They saw it, and so they 
marvelled; they were troulited. and so they hast- 
ed a'way." " The Lord of hosts is with us ; the 
God of Jacob is our refu^^e." " In Salem stood 
his labeniacle ; and his dwelling place in Zion. 
There brake he the arrows of the bow, the shield 
and the sword of the battle." This city of God 
long answered well to its name, — Jeru, thiy shall 
see ; Salem, pence. Long did the chureh, while 
they walked with God, there see and enjoy 

But alas, we find recorded oftbis city, temple, 
and nation of the Jews, a fatal reverse. They 
found the sentiment iu Iheir sacred oraclea ful- 
filled ; " The Lord is with you while ye be with 
him ; but if ye forsake him, he will cast you oif. 

The Jews became carnal ; crucified the Lord 
of glory; and tbey fell under the denunciations, 
and the full execution of his wrath. Their law- 
giver Mo9eB,and their prophets had long thunder- 
ed against them, that when they ahould become 
of the character tbey finally assumed, the most 
tremendous judgments of God should cut them 
" ~ And the Mes^iiib sttercd ajjainst theoji''^ 


consequence of their rejecting hinn, a new edition 
of these fatal denunciations, which we find in 
Matt. xxiv. Mark xiii. Luke xix. 41 — 44» chap, 
xxi. and xxiii. 27 — 30; to which the reader is re- 
ferred. These were to have a primary fuitil- 
ment -in the desolation of Jerusalem, and of the 
Jewish commonwealth. This primary fulfil- 
ment Christ assured should take place on that ge- 
neration. And the denunciation was fulfilled. 

This fulfilment, injasmuch as it demonstrated 
the truth and divinity of our Saviour ; exhibited 
a type of the destruction of Antichrist, mnd of Ihe 
wicked at the end of the world ; and shows the 
danger of rejecting the Son of God ; ought to be 
duly noted in the church, and frequently con- 
templated. It is a subject too much neglected, 
and forgotten in the present christian world. ' I 
design then, to give a concise description of the 
event, in which Jesus Christ came in awful judg- 
ment upon the infidel Jews, and vindicated hia 
cause against his persecutors and murderers. 
But some preliminary remarks will first be made. 

This noted city was built on two mountains ; 
and contained two parts, called the upper^ and 
the liywer city. The former was built on Mount 
Sion ; the latter on Mount A era. The city is 
supposed to have been founded by Melchisedeck, 
and then called Salem, or Solyma. The war- 
like Jebusitcs possessed it, when Israel entered 
Canaan. '^ 

In the higher city they long d^nded them- 
selves against the Hebrews. Here they remain- 
ed, till David subdued them ; and called their 
city, The City of David. 

Herod the Great, when he repaired (or rathcF 
rebuilded) the temple, added vast strength and 
embellishmcats to this city \ which aACQv\\^^'^> 

its superb state and strcnglli, wlien it was de- 

Most of this city was surrounded vviih tlirct 
wails. In some places, where it was docnuHl in- 
accessible, it had only one. The wall, tirst built, 
was adorned and strengthened with sixty towers. 
Fourteen towers rested on the middle wall. The 
outside one (most remarkable for its workman- 
ship) was secured with ninety towers. 

The tower Psephinos, was most celebrated. 
It was seventy cubits high ; had eight angles ; 
and commanded a most beautiful prospect. Here 
the visitor might (in a clear atmosphere) deliiiht 
himself with a view of the Mediterranean, forty 
miles to the west 5 and of most of the Jewish do- 
miiiions. Some of these towers were nearly 
ninety cubits in height; and famous for their 
beauty, elegance and curiosities. They were 
built of white marble ; and had the appearance 
of vast marble blocks. These huge piles gave to 
the city, in the view of the adjacent country, a 
most majestic appearance. 

Near the most lofty of these towers stood the 
royal palace, of the most commanding elegance. 
Incredible cost had furnishedits pillars, porticoes, 
galleries, and apartments* Its gardens, groves, 
fountains, aqueducts, and walks, presented the 
richest and most delightful scenery. This was the 
beauty and elegance of the north side of Jeru- 

On th«i east side stood the temple, and the fort 
of Antonio, over against Mount Olivet. This 
fort was built on a rock of fifty feet in height, and 
of inaccessible steepness, overlaid with slabs of 
marble. The castle of Antonio stood in the 
centre of this fortress. The workmanship of this 
>castle made it more resemble a palace, than a 

N ■ 

f ■ 


castle. A tower adorned each square of this 
fortress ; one of which was seveuty cubits high, 
and commanded a full view of the temple. >• 

The temple was, in many respq^ts, the most 
astonishing fabric ever beheld, its site was part;; ^ 
ly on a solid rock, originally steep on every side. 
The lower temple had a foundation of vast di- 
mensions, said to be three hundred cubits from 
its lowest base. This foundation waa- composed 
of stones sixty feet in length ; and the lower 
part of the superstructure was composed of 
stones of solid white marble, more than sixty 
feet long ; and seven by nine feet in ,bigness. 
Four furlongs compassed the whole pile of build- 
h)g ; which was one hundred cubits high ; with 
one hundred and sixty pillars, to alTord both sup- 
port and ornament. 

In the front were spacious and lofty galleries, 
with cedar wainscot, resting on uniform rows of 
white marble columns. Josephus asserts that 
nothing could exceed the exterior part of this 
house of God, for exquisite workmanship and ele- 
gance. Its solid plates of gold seemed to strive 
to out-dazzle the rising sun. The parts of J:he 
building not covered with gold, had, at a distance, 
the appearance of pillars of snow, or white 
marble mountains. And the grandeur of the in- 
ternal workmanship of this magnificent dome, 
did not fail of being fully equal to "ft^.: external 
magnificence. Nothing superb, costly, or ele- 
gant was spared. The dilFererit parts of the 
world had seemed to vie with each other, to pour 
their most costly treasures into ihis wonderful trea** 
sury of Heaven. The lower story was decorated 
with the sacred furniture, the table of shew bread, 
altar of incense, and the candlestick of pure 
beaten gold. The altar and table were overigiid 


#ith pure gold. Several doors of the sanctuary 
were tifty-five cubits in height, and sixteen in 

* ,V breadth, overlaid also with gold. The richest 
, : "^ Babylonian tapestry, of purple, blue and scarlet, 

y- and of exquisite workmanship, waved within these 
doors. Golden vines, with leaves and clusters 
of grapes of gold, were suspended from the ceil- 
ing five or six feet, of curious workmanship. The 
temple had a huge eastern gate of pure Corin- 
thian brass, — a metal in the highest esteem. It 
would be a task to enumerate all the foldings of 
golden doors in the chambers ; — carved works, 
paintings and gildings ; — vessels of gold; scarlet, 
violet, and purple sacerdotal vestments ; and all 
the incalculable piles of riches, in this temple of 
Jehovah. The most precious stones, spices, 
and perfumes ; — every thing that nature, art, or 
riches could furnish, were stored within the?e 
stupendous and hallowed walls. Here were the 
C/7«/, and temple to be destroyed, for the infidelity, 
malice, hypocrisy, and persecution of the Lord of 
glory, (ill liinisclf, aad his followers,) which cha- 
racterized its rulers and peo])le. Here a measure 
of finprecedcntcd atrociousness, was just filled 
up ; which should bring down wrath upon them 
to the uttermost. 

This tremendous ruin, our Lord foretold, and 

Tiic last noted entrance into Jerusalem of Him, 
who w^as God manifest in the flesh, took place on 
the IMouday before the scene of his sulferings. 
Amidst the acclamation of multitudes he was hail- 
ed King of Ziori, v/ith every token of joy and 
praise. The air rang again with their praises, 
uttered for all the mighty works they had seen. 
Thcv sang, Hosanna! Blessed be the King that 
Cometh iu the name of the Lord! Peace iiiheav- 

I ; en ; and glory in the highest. Our Lord (supe- 
rior to all their adulation, and knowing how soon 
the hosanna^s of some of them would turn to, /. 
'.'Crucify him;" — and being touched with sym- 
• patiiy and pity for a devoted city, now going to 

■ iill up their guilty measure of iniquity) '^beheld 

' , the city^ and wept over it.^^ He said ; " If thou / 
hadst known, even thou, in this thy day, the > 
things which belong to thy peace ! but now they 
are hid from thine eyes ! For the days shall come 
when thine enemies shall cast a trench about 
thee, and compass thee round ;»and keep thee in 
. on every side ; and shall lay thee even with tlic 
• ground, ar-d thy children within thee. And they 
fihall not leave thee one stone upon another; 

■ because thou knewest not the time of thy visita- 
tion." The day but one after, Christ went into 
the temple for the last time, to instruct the peo- 
ple. While he was thus employed, the high 
priest, elders, Herodians, Sadducees, and Phari- 
sees, gathered in turn around him, with a mali- 
cious view,to entangie him in his talk. Christ 
returned such answers, spake such parables, and 
set home such rtproof and conviction to their 
souls, as not only to astonish and silence them; 
but to give them some awful prelibation of the fi- 
nal Judgment, which awaiLcd them at his bar. 
He thus, in a most free and pungent address to 
the disciples, administered the most dignified and 
keen repti)ofs for the cruelty, hypocrisy and pride 
of th^.Sc/ibes and Pharisees. He fciretold the 
malicfefis treatment tlie disciples wotAJ meet 
with ^ their bauds ; and then denounced the 
vengeance on that falling city, which for ages 
their crimes had been accumulating. He fore- 
warned that this cup of divine indignation should 
fce poured on that ge7ieration. His- tender feelings 



of soul then melted in a most moving apo«- 
*trophe : " O Jerusalem, Jerusalem ! thou that 
killest the prophets, and stonest them that arfe 
sent unto thee ! How often would 1 have gather- 
ed thy children together, even as a hen gathereth 
her chickens under her wings ; and ye would 
not ! Behold, your house is left unto you deso- 
late. For I say unto you, ye shall not see me 
henceforth, till ye shall say, " Blessed is he that 
Cometh in the name of the Lord.'' Upon this 
our Saviour left the temple. The disciples took 
an occasion to sptak to Christ of the magnificence 
of the sacred edifice ; — ^how it was adorned with 
goodly stones and gifts. "Master, (said they,) see 
what manner of stones and buildings are here." 
" Jesus said unto them ; See ye not all these 
things ? Verily, I say unto you, there shall not 
be left here one stone upon another, that shall 
not be thrown down." How very unlikely must 
•uch an event have seemed ! But it was indeed 
fulfilled upon that generation. 

Jesus and his disciples retired to the mount of 
Olives. Here the temple rose before them in all 
its majestic elegance. The surrounding scenery 
naturally suggested the conversation which fol- 
lowed. The disciples petitioned ;-^" Tell us, 
when shall these things be? and what shall be 
the sign when al) these things shall be fulfilled ?" 
Their minds seem to have been impressed with 
the preceding discourse ; and they fell most 
readily upon the same sub ect, and wished to 
know when such awful events should co||ie ; and 
what warnings should announce their approach. 
Our Lord replied : " Take heed that no man de;- 
ceive you ; for many shall come in my name, 
saying, I am Christ ; and shall deceive m?ny." 
As though he had said : This shall be one signal 

En of the event, bolh as my denunciations t&*^ 

e to a primary atctimplishnieiit in the destriic- 
iTon of Jerii=alcin ; at id to d nioi-e gt^acral and 
dreadful fuilihnent in the destruction of Anliclirist 
in the last diijs. hnpostura shall abound. False 
religionists sliall deceive and niiu many. This 
was fullilled in relation to Jerusalem. Not long 
after Clirist'si ascension, the Samaritan Dositlicus 
appeared and declared himi^clf the Mc^tsiah 
predicted by Moees. Simon Magus also declar- 
ed himself " the Grtat power of God.^' 
ter, another impostor appeared from the mongi 
SamaHtans. The church has ever been aunoja, 
ed by such kind of Samaritans, who have cvfi^l 
heeu fruitful in vile impostors, crying " Lo, liere'^ 
and lo, there." This impostor promised to ex^ 
Libit to the people sacred utensils said to be de- 
posited by Closes in Mount Gent/tm. Here a 
new decision must be given from heaven, to the 
question between t be Jew» and Samaritans, uk'S 
to tlic place of worship; a thing of wbichschiB 
matics have ever beea exceedingly fond ; to (1 ' 
rive some new light upon their parly question d 
rectly from above ; as though deci:iiuu;i ah-ea^ 
given were iusuflicient. 

Armed multitudes sallied forth to follow tl^ 
Messiah, conhdent tlieir Great Deliverer had i 
last made his ajipcarance. But Pilate, the 1 
man governor, checked tlieir fanaticism with tl 
aword, -and put their fancied Messiah to death. - 

Another impostor, Theudas. arose. 
the address to persuade multitudes to follow bJl^ 
into the wilderness, under his piomise that ] 
would cause the river Jordan to divide. 
Roman procurator, Fadus, wilha troop of hnrsejH 
pursued them ; slew the impostor, and mmiy oth 
era ; and dispersed the lactiou. De< 



dcr the government of Felix, were multiplied, 
leading oil' people into the wilderness under the 
promise and fanatical expectation that they 
t^hould there, see signs and wonders. The old 
Serpent often leads fanatical people into wilder- 
nesses of error and delusion, under sifnilar ex- 
pectations. The vigilant age of the Roman 
governor rested on these impostors, and was sure 
to frustrate their designs, as oft as they appeared. 
In the year 55, arose a notable Egyptian im- 
postor, named Felix. Thirty thousand followed 
him, unden the persuasion tliat from mount Oli- 
vet they should see the walls of Jerusalem fall to 
the ground at his command, for their easy cap- 
ture of the Roman garrison there ; and (heir tak- 
ing possession of Jerusalem. They were f)ttack- 
<id b) the Roman governor :" four hundred were 
slain : and the rest dispersed. The Egyptian 
impostor escaped for his life. In the year 60, an- 
other pretended Messiah appeared, eni;aging to 
break the Roman yoke, if they would follow him 
hito the wilderness ; . but the deceiver and his 
followers soon fell a sacritice to the viciJance of 
Festus, the governor. It would be too unwieldy 
to mention all the vile impctlors of this peri- 
od. They were a just retribution of righteous 
Heaven upon the Jews, for having rejected and 
put to death the true Messiah : and tlicy fulfill- 
ed the warning of our Lord, of a host of deceiv- 
ers at that period. How prone are men to court 
deception. Christ had said to llie Jews, ' I am 
come in mv Father's name, and ^e receive n.e 
not. If another should come in his own name, 
him will ye receive.' This was fuitilled : and 
not only then, but in every age to this day. Those 
who give the best evangelical evidence of their 
bein^i; ambassadors of Christ, many will reject ; 

^5 . , 

while the co'iiident and noisy claims of egotists 
arc hy them fully allowed. "As in water face 
answers to face ; so the heart of man to man." 

Oar Lord proceeds : '" And ye shall hear of 
wars, and rumours of wars : see that ye be not - 
troubled : for all these things shall come to pass; 
bat the end is not ycL For nation shall rise a- 
gainst nation ; and kingdoin against kingdom; 
and great earthquakes shall be in divers places, 
and fimlnes, and pestilences; all these are the 
beginning of sorrows." 

The porte!itous thunders of wars and rumours 
of wars miy be said to have occupied most of the 
time from the death of our Saviour, to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem. The historic pages, which 
treat of the^e times, are stained with blood. A 
war between lliirod and Aretas, king of Arabia, 
o;^)ened the bloody scene, after a short season of 
peice. Tri Selucia the Greeks and Syrians rose 
against the Jews, who fled tliither from the pes- 
tilence in Babylon, and slew 50,000 of them. 
Five years .i.'ter, the Jews in Perea, and people 
of Piiila-lelphia, contended about the limits of a 
city ; when many of the Jews were slain. Four 
y(iars after this, an insult being offered to the 
Jew^ within the precincts of the temple, by a 
Rom.^n soldier ; and being violently resented ; a 
Romm force rushed upon them ; which so terri- 
fied the Jews, that they fled in vast disorder* 
and 10,000 of them lost their lives in the streets. 
After another four years, the Jews ravaged the 
country of the Samaritans, in consequence of 
their having murdered a Galilean, who was going 
to keep the passover. Many were slain. Soon 
after, a contention arose between the Jews in 
C:csarea and the Syrians, relative to the govern- 
ment of Cijesarea. In the first encounter more 


than 20,000 Jews were slain. This contention 
raged in manj cities where the Jews and Syrians 
dwelt ; and nuiUial slaughter prevailed. And in 
five other cities the carnage among the Jews was 
dreadful. At Damascus 10,000 Jews were slain 
in one hour. And at Scythopolis 13,000 were 
slain in one night* In Alexandria the Jews rose 
upon the Romans ; and had 50,000 of their peo- 
ple slain, without any regard to infancy or age. 
Soon after, in a contention at Totapata, 40,000 
Jews perished. These contentions rose and in- 
creased, till the whole Jewish nation took up 
arms against the Romans, and brought on them- 
selves their final destruction. Thus the predic- 
tion of our Saviour quoted, received in those days 
a striking primary fulfilment. 

Our Saviour added : " And great earthquakes 
shall be in divers places," These significant 
warnings too, were accomplished in those days. 
Two are recorded by Tacitus ; one at Rome in 
the reign of Claudius; another at Apamea, in 
Syria, where were many Jews. So destructive 
was the one at the latter place, that the tribute 
due to the Romans, was for five years remitted. 
One also was terrific at Crete ; one at Smyrna ; 
one at Miletus ; (5ne at Chios, and one at Samo.s; 
in all which places Jews dwelt. These are no- 
ted by Philastratus. Soon after, in the reign of 
Nero, both Tacitus and Eusebius inform, that 
Hierapolis, and Colosse, as well as Laodicea, 
were overthrown by earthquakes. Another is 
•"noted at Rome ; one at Campania ; and others 
tremendous are mentioned as taking place at Je- 
rusalem in the night, just before the commence- 
ment of the last siege of that city. Of these Jo- 
sephus gives the following account : " A heavy 
storm burst on them, durinij the night : violent 


winds arose, with most excessive rains, with con- 
slant Hghtiiing, most tremendous thunders, and 
dreadful roarings of earthquakes. It seemed as 
if the system of the world had been confounded 
for the destruction .of mankind. And one might 
well conjecture that these were signs of no com- 
mon event." 

The famines predicted by Christ were hkc- 
wise fulfilled. The one foretold by Agabus, no- 
ted in the Acts of the Apostles, was dre.'^dful, and 
of long continuance. It extended through 
Greece and Italy : but was most severely felt at 
Judea, and especially at Jerusalem. The con- 
tributions noted as brought by Paul from abroad, 
to reheve the poor brethren there, were sent 
during this sore famine. Authors of that time 
mention two other famines in the empire, previ- 
ous to the one occasioned by the siege of Jerusa- 

^'Pestilences" too, the Saviour adds. Two in- 
stances of this signal judgment took place before 
the last Jewish war. The one took place at 
Babylon, Where many Jews resided ; the other 
at Rome, which swept oti'vast multitudes. Oth- 
er lighter instances of this calamity occurired, jn 
various parts of the empire ; as both Tacitus aiidL 
Suetonius record. 

Our Lord also adds : " And fearful sightff .^4 
great signs shall there be from heaven." J^^ 
phus (who can never be suspected of wishing k)^ 
favour any prediction of Christ ; and who proba- 
bly knew not of any such prediction, when he 
wrote,) gives accounts o*events,;which strikingly 
answer to this premonition. Speaking of the in- 
fatuation of his countrymen, in running after im- 
postors, while they neglected the plainest admo- 
nitions from heaven ; he gives account of i)i^ 
seven following events : 

1 . He says ; " On the Stli of Uic month Zaiithi- 
ciis, (before the feast of unleavened breadj) at the 
ninth hour of tlie night, there shone round about 
the allar, and the circumjacent buildings of the 
tenrijile, a light equal to Uie briglitricss of ihe 
day ; wliich contiuued for Uie space of half an 

2. " About the sixth hour of the night, (says 
JosephuB,) the eastern gate of the temple was 
found to open without human assistance." Thla 
gate was of solid brass ; and so large and heavy, 
as to refjuire twenty men to close it. And Jose- 
phus says, "it was secured by iron bolts and bars, 
that were let down intoa large threshold consisting 
of one entire stone." The Jews themselves con- 
oluded, from the miraculous nature of this event, 
that the security of their temple had fled. When 
the procurator was informed of tins evcnt,he sent 
nband of men to close the door; who with great 
di^iculty executed their orders. 

Again, the same celebrated Jewish author 
■s ; "At a subsecjuent feast of Pentecost, while 
ie priests were going by night into the inner tem- 
ple, to perform their customary ministrations, 
they lirst felt (as they said,) a shaking, accom- 
panied by an indistinct murmuring; and after- 
wards voices as of a multitude, sajnng in r dis- 
tinct and earnest manner: "Let us depart 
hence." How striking was this miraculous pre- 
nionilion. It commenced with a shaking ; to 
call and fix the attention of these Jewi-^h priests. 
Then was heard an indistinct murmur. This 
would make them listen with alWposaiblc heed. 

I Then they heard the distinct zoiccs, as of a mul- 
titude in great earnestness anil hasle ; — " Lut as 
§epart hmce ."' And tlieir last fatal war with the 
ptomans commenced Wforv the n«xt b^soii far 
telebrating this feast. 

n Dane 
I di0icu 

' thev t 


4. Another sign was the followiiipr. Tlie 
snme awtlior says: '* A nieleor, rcseuibling a 
iword, hung over Jerusalem, during one whole 
ycLki'." This could no! have hecn a comet, for 
it was stationary a whole year, and secm^, from 
the words of Josephus, to have been much near- 
er than a comet, and appeared to be appropria* 
teil to that city. This remindB one of the sword 
of the destroying angel, slrelclied out over Jeru- 
aalem, I, Chro. 21, xvi. This stationary posi- 
tion of the sword for a year, wag a lively indica- 
tiiin that the impending ruin was fatal. 

5. Joseplius says again : "As (he high priests 
were leadii^ a. b«fer to the altar to be sacrificed, 
she broQght forth a lamb in the midst of the tem- 
ple." Most striking rebuke to those infidel 
priests who had rejected the Lamb of God, who 
had *lied his blood once for all, and abrogated 
the Levitical sacritices ; which yet they were 
impiously continuing. This wonder was 
itod in the temple, the type of the body of Chri 
and at the passover, when at a preceding pat 
vor JesHswas arrested and sacrificed; ant 
took place before the high priests and Iheir at- 
tendants; so that they could never complain for 
want of evidence of the fact. 

C. This author says i " Soon after the feast of 
the various parts of the country, be- 
fore the setting of tlie sun, chariots and armed 
nicn^rre seen in the air passing' round about 
JnWuali^m." This strange sighi occurring " " 
(utG sunset, and being seen in various parts 
(he country, cnust have been a miraculous w 
lent ; n sign fpoia heaven. The Jews had sai 
" What sign showftst thou, that we may 
believe." Now (liey had their signi ii 
daaco, yet they would not b«li»re. 

ere ^^ 



7. The last and most fearful sign Joscph\is re- 
lates ; tiiat one Jesus, son of Anan«is, a rustic of 
the lower class,appeare(l in the temple :\t tl^e feast 
of tabernacles, and suddenly exclaimed, "ci voire 
from the east — a voice from the 7oesl — a voice, 
from the four winds — a voice against JervsaUm 
and the temple — a voice against the bridegrooms 
and the brides — n voice against the xohoie peo- 
ple /" These words he continued to exclaim 
through the streets of Jerusale\n by day and by 
ni^ht, M'ith no cessation (unless what was ncedod 
for the support of nature) for seven years ! He 
commenced in the year ^o^ while the city Avas in 
peace and prosperity, and terminated his excla- 
mations only in his death, amidst the horrors of 
the siege in the year 70. This strange thing, 
when it commenced, soon excited great atten- 
tion ; and this Jesus was brought before Albinus, 
the Roman governor, who interrogated him, but 
couid obtain no answer except the continuation 
of his woes. He commanded him to be scourg- 
ed, but to no effect. During times of festivals, 
this cry of his was peculiarly loud and indent. 
After the commencement of the siege, he ascen- 
ded the walls, and in a voice still more tremen- 
dous than ever, he exclaimed, " Wo^ wo to this 
citjf^ this temple^ and this people /" And he then 
added,, (for the first time for the seven years.) 
'' IVo^ wo to myself P^ The words were no soon- 
er uttered, than a stone from a Roman machine 
without the v/alls, struck him dead on the spot!" 
Such were the signs in the heavens and in the 
©arth, whi#h just preceded the destruction of Je- 
. rusalem. Several of them are recorded by Ta- 
citus as well as by Josephus. The veracity of Jo- 
sephus as a historian is probal)ly allowed by all. 
Scahger affirms that he deserves' more credit as 



a VrTiter, than all the Greek and Roman histori- 
ans put together. . 

From the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompey, 
sixty years before Christ, the Jews repeatedly 
had exhibited a most rebellious spirit against the 
Romans. The Jews had basely said to Pilate, 
concerning Christ, "If thou let this man go, tliou 
art not a friend to Caesar." But the fact was, 
they persecuted Christ because he would not 
erect a temporal throne in opposition to Caesar. 
Any impostor who seemed prepared to do this, 
they were ready to follow ; and were ready to 
improve every aj)parent occasion to evince their 
decided hostility to the Romans. And they 
hardly needed a prophet's eye to discern that 
this spirit and conduct (manifested on all occa- 
sloiis) would soon draw against them the Roman 

Judas, a Gaulonite, and Sadduc, a Pharisee, 
had rallied the Jews with the idea that their pay- 
ing tribute to the Romans would not fail to con- 
firm them in tli^hiost abject slavery ; in cor)?e- 
cjucnce of whjMi, their enmity often burst forth 
with malignarH violence. Tumults and riots in- 
creased, and Florus, the Roman governor of Ju- 
dea, by his cruel exactions, increased this spirit 
among the Jews. Eleazer, son of the high priest, 
persuaded the officers of the temple to reject the 
oiTerings of foreigners, and to withhold publick 
prayers for tliem. The Roman government felt 
the insult ; and a basis was soon found to be laid 
for a Roman war! Feuds and contentions in- 
creased in Judea, till Cestins Callus marched an 
army thither from Syria to restore order. His 
march was marked with blood and desolation. — 
The city of Zcbnlon, Joppa, and other villages 
in bi« way, he'plundered and burned. Eight 


thousand four hundred of the inhabitants of the 
former place, he slew. The district of Narba- 
lene he laid waste, and slew two thousand of the 
Jews in Galilee ; reduced the city of Lydda to 
ashes, and drove the Jews, (who made desperate 
salhes upon him) till heencai ••.ed within a hun- 
dred miles of the capital. Soon after, he enter- 
ed Jerusalem, and bunied some part of the city. 
But through the treachery of his own officers, he 
made an unexpected flight. The enraged Jews 
pursued him, and slew about sixty thousand of 
his men. Many of the rich Jews, alarmed at the 
Roman invasion, fled from Jerusalem, as from a 
fointderiiig ship. Some suppose many of the 
(^]ni>tians now fled to a place called Pella in the 
moimlains of Judea. 

Nero being informed of the defeat of Cestins, 
gave tlie command to Vespasian to press the war 
a.:^ain<t the rebellious Jews. He and his son* 
Tit;!s soon collected an army of sixty thousand 
men. In A. D. G7, he marched from Ftolentais 
to Judea, marking his steps v/ith ravages and 
desolation. Infancy and age fell before the fu- 
rious soldiery. All the strong towns of Galilee, 
and many of those of Judea fell before the vic- 
torious arms of Vespasian, who slew not less 
than one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants. 
Signal vengeance was taken on Joppa, which 
had in part been rebuilt, after it had been by 
Cesti us reduced to ashes. Vespasian was enra- 
ged at the frequent piracies of this people. The 
Jews of this place fleeing before him, betook 
themselves to their shipping. But a furious 
tempest overtook those who stood out to sea, 
wh'> wore lost. The others were dashed vessel 
aifainst vepsfti, or a:;ainst the rocks. Some in 
tiicir dienlfe laid violent hands on thembeives. 



Such as reached the shore were slain by the eri- 
mged Romans. The sea for some distance was 
stained witli their blood: four thousand two hun* 
drcd were strewed along their coasts, and not 
0!ie escaped to relate their catastrophe. Truly 
this was " distress of their nation, with the sea 
and the waves thereof roaring 1" 

Vespasian returned from Jericho to Caesarca, 
to prepare for a j^rand siege of Jerusalem. Here 
he received intellit^eiice of the death of the em- 
peror Nero. This led him to suspend for the 
present, tiie execution of his plan against the 
Jews. This respite to that devoted people con- 
tin jnd about two years, and but encouraged 
4honi to deeds of greater eiiormity. 

A spirit of faction now appeared in Jerusalem. 
Two parties first, and afterwards three, raged 
theie ; each contending with deadly animosity 
for <he precedency. A part of one of thejse fac- 
tions having been excluded from the city, enter- 
ed it by force duriiig the night; and to mad- 
ness were they al»andoned, th^it they butchered 
(on that fatctl night) not less thaii ei j;ht thot«s'*nd 
five hundred of men, women anii c{j-jdio':. \j^:iM.e 
in.\ngled bodies appeared llio next moi-iing 
r<trc\\ed in the streets of Jeiubaidm. 'i'Kci'e 
aljandoned munlercrs plundered in tl;e cil y ; 
nu:rdered the hi_i;ii priei^is, Ananus and .f< s»!s, 
and insulud their dead bodies. They siew tlicir 
brediren f:f Jerusalem, as though they bud been 
wild a.iinials. They scoury:ed and imnrisoned 
the nobles, in hopes to icrrily tfieni to l)econ)'^ of 
their party; and many who could not be thus won, 
they slew. In this reign of terror, twelve thou- 
sand of the higher orders of the people thus per- 
ished ; a;id no relative dared to shed a mourjiini:; 
tear, lest this should bring ou him a similar fate. 



Accusation and death became the most common 
events* M;iny fled, who were intercepted and 
slain. Piles of their carcasses lay on publick 
roads ; and all pity, as well as regard for human 
or divine authority, seemed extingu.shed. 

To add to the horrid calamities of the times, 
occasioned by tlie bloody factions, Judea v^as in- 
fested by bands of robbers and murderers, plun- 
dering their towns and cutting in pieces such as 
made any resistance, whether men, women or 
children. Here were exhibited the most horrid 
pictures of what fallen man is capable of perpe- 
trating when restraints are taken olf; that they 
would turn their own towns and societies into 
scenes of horror, like kennels of mad animals. 

One Simon became commander of one of these 
factions ; John of another. Simon entered Je- 
rusalem at the head of forty thousand banditti. 
A third faction rose, a»d discord blazed with ter- 
rifick fury. The three factions were intoxicated 
with rage and desperation, who went on slaying 
and tramphng on piles of the dead, with an in- 
describable fury. People coming to the temple 
to worship, were murdered, both natives and for- 
eigners. Their bodies lay in piles, and a collec- 
tion of blood defiled the sacred courts. 

John of Gischala. head of a faction, burned a 
store of provisions! Sin)on, at the head of an- 
other faction, burned another. Thus the Jews 
were weakening and destroying themselves, and 
preparing the way for "wrath to come upon 
them to the uttermost." 

In the midst of these most dismal events, an 
alarm was made that a Roman army was ap- 
proaching the city ! Vespasian becoming empe- 
ror, and learning the factious and horrid state of 
the Jews, determined to prosecute the \^ar 


against them, and sent his son Titus to reduce J 
Jerusalem and Judea. The Jews, on beiiriiig *> 
the approach of the Roman army, wcie petriliec 
wil li horror. Thej could have no hope of p 
They had no means of fli-ht. They had nc 
for counsel. They had no coiitidence in 
other. What could be done ? Several thing 
they possessed Id abundance. They had a me 
ure of iniquity tilled up ; a full ripeness for d 
traction. AU seemed wild disorder and dfispair. 
Notliing could be imi^iiied but "the confused 
uotse of the warrior, and garments rolled la 
hlood." They kocw aotliing was their due from 
the Romans, hut exemplary ven^jeance. The 
ceaseless cry of comliatants, and tlie horrors of 
faction, had induced some to desire the intervea-^ 
lion of a foreii;n foe, to give them delivcraoci 
from theirdoinestick horrors. Such was theetat^ 
of Jemsalem when Titus appeared before i 
with a besiei^ing army. But he came not to d 
fiver it fi-om its eKcruciatitig tortures ; but to e 
ecutc upon it divine venge|-i:ice ; to fulfil the & 
tal predictions of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
" when ye see the abjjmination of desoln 
standing in ihe boiy place — wiicn ye sec Jerut 
lem compassed about with armies, — then I 
that the desolation thereof is ni;^h." " Wher^ 
soever the carcass is, there sIihII the eagles 1 
gathered together." Jerusalem was now tl 
carcass to be devoured ; the Roniaa eagiea lia 
arrived to tear it as their prey. 

The day on which Tjtu» had encompflssej 
Jerusalem, was the feast of the passovtJ 
let it be remembered, that it was the time of tin 
fcaat, (en a preceding occasion) that Christ c 
taken, condemued and executed, it was ai 

keifcr in the bauds 

^ 3e\ 



I aw 

I im| 


^^' drca 

tlie sacrificing priests, brought forth a lamb. And 
just after this feast at another tiine,tliat the mirac- 
ulous be«iegiog armies were seen over Jcnisnlem, 
' ist before sunset. And now at the time of the 
ssover, the antitype of this prodigy ti»p<:3rs in 
le besieging army of Titus. Multitudes of 
Jews had convened at .lenisalem from surround- 
ing nations to celebrate this feast. Ah, misera- 
ble pcople,^ — going with ^Jitcnt to feed on the 
paschal Jamb; but really to their own tiiial slaujjh- 
ter, for rejecting " the Lamh of God wiio takctti 
away the sin of the world !" The Jews bad 
imprecated the blood of the true Paschal Lamb, 
<by them wantonly shed) on tliemscives and on 
their children. God was now going in a signal 
manner to take them at thrirword. Ileheuce' 
irovidcntially collected their nation, under sen- 
ince of death, as into a ^reat prison, for the day 
execution. And as their execution of Clu'ist 
signal, low, degrading, — the death of the 
'&Toss; so their execution should be signal and 
dreadful. The lUlling city was now crowded 
with httle short of two millions of that devoted 
people. The event came suddenly and unex- 
pectedly to the Jew3. as the coining of a thief, 
and almost hkc lightning. Josephus' noicH this; 
and thus without design, ^ows the fulfdnicbt of 
these hints of Christ, that his coming should be 
like a thief in the night, aad like lightning shin- 
ing under the whole heavens. 

The furious contending factious of the Jews, 
on finding themselves environed with the Ro- 
man armies, laid aside (for the moment) their 
party contentions, saUied out, rushed firious^ 
on their common foe, and came near utti'ri " '*'' ' 
stroying the tenth legion of the Roman am 
'I'liiit pamc among the Romj 

ar Utt.-rl^^^^ 
man aru^^^^H 

sliort suspension of hostilities. Some n( 
fideiice hence inspired the hopes of Ihe Jew^iH 
and they now (telermined to defend their city. 
But being a little rcleuaed from their terroi-a of 
the Romans, their factious resentments a^a re- 
kindled, and broke out in great fury. The fac- 
tion under Eleazer was swallowed up in the oth- 
er two, under John and Simon. Slaughter, con- 
flagration and plunder ensued. A poilion of 
the centre of the city was humed, and the m- 
habilanls became as prisoners to the two furious 
parties. The Romans here saw their own pro- 
verb verified: "Quo* Dttts villi perdere privs 
dcmtnlat," "Whom God will destroy, be gives 
up to madness." 

The invading armies knew how to profit by 
the madness of Ihc Jews, They were soon 
found by tlie Jews to have possession of the two 
outer walla of their city : this alarm reached the 
heart of the factions, and once more united them 
against the common enemy. But they had al- 
ready proceeded loo far to retreat from the ef- 
fects of their madness. Famine, with its ghast- 
ly horrors, stared them in the face. It had (as 
might be expected) been making a silent ap- 
proach ; and some of the more obscure had al- 
ready fallen before it. But even this did not 
annihilate the fury of faction, which again re- 
turned with redoubled fury, and presented new 
scenes of wo. As the famine increased, the suf- 
ferers would snatch bread from each other's 
mouths, and devour their grain unprepared. To 
discover haiidfuls of food, tortures were inflicted. 
Food was violently taken hy husbands from 
wives, and wives from husbands; and even by 
molhers from their famishini' infants. The breast 
Heeli waa robbed from tlie ^atn<shing suckling, afl 


our Lord denounced : " Wo to Ihcm that give 
suck in those days." 

This terror produced a new scene of righteous 
retrihution. Multitudes of the Jews were forc- 
ed by hunger to fiee to the enemy's camp. Here 
instead of pitying and relieving them, the Ro- 
mans cut olfthe hands of many, and sent them 
back ; but most of tliem they crucified as fast as 
they could lay their hands on them ; till wood . 
\vas wanting for cros^es, and space on which to 
erect them ! Behold here thousands of those des- 
pairing Jews suspended on crosses round the 
w^alls of Jerusalem ! Verily " the Lord is known 
by the judgments that he executeth !" Yea, 
this did not suftice. Behold two thousand Jews, 
who had fled to the mercy of their invaders, rip- 
ped open alive (two thousand in one niaht!) by 
Arabs and Syrians in the Roman armies, in hopes 
of finding gold, which these Jews had (or their 
jenemies/cr>ic/erf they had) swallowed to carry off 
'"^+ii <bpm ! 

Titus being a merciful general, was touched 
to the heart at the miseries of the Jews ; and in 
person he tenderly entreated the besieged to 
surrender. But all the answer he obtained for 
his tenderness was base revilings. He now re- 
solved to make thorough work with this obstin- 
ate people ; and hence surrounded the city with 
a circumvaliation of 39 furlongs in length, 
strengthened with thirteen towers. This, by the 
astonishing activity of the -soldiers, was eflected 
in three days. Then was fulfilled this prediction 
of our blessed Lord : " Thine enemies shall cast 
a trench about thee, and keep thee in on every 

As the city was row cut off from all possible 
suppli^^B, famiat; became more dreadful. Wbola 


femilies fell a sacrifice to it; and the dead bodies' 
of women, childrea, and Lhe aged, were seei) 
covering roofs of houaea, and various recesses. 
Youth and the middle aged appeared like spec- 
tres ; and fell many of them dead in publick pla- 
ces. The dead became too aumerous to be in- 
terred. Many died while attemptiog to perform 
this office. So great and awtUI became the ca- 
lamities, Uiat lamentation censed ; and an awful 
silence of despair overwhelmed the city. But 
all this failed of restraining the more abandoned 
from most horrid deeds. They took this oppor- 
tunity to rob the tombs ; and with loud infernal 
laughter, to strip the dead of their habiliments 
of death; and would try the edge of their swords 
OQ dead bodies ; and on some while yet breath- 
ing. Simon Georas now vented his rage against 
Matthias, the high priest, and his three sons.— 
He caused them to be condemned, as though fa- 
vouring the Romans. The father asked the fa- 
Tour to be first executed ; and not see the death 
of his sons ; but the mahcious Simon reserved 
him for the last execution. And as he was ex- 
piring he put the insulting question, whether the 
ftomans could now relieve him ? 

Things being thus, one MannKus, a Jew, es- 
caped to Titus, and informed him of the consum- 
mate wretchedness of the Jews; that ia less 
than three months one hundred and fitleen thou- 
sand and eight hundred dead bodies of Jews had 
been conveyed through one gate, under his care 
and register; and he assured him of the ravages 
of famine and death. Other deserters conhrmed 
the account, and added, that not less than six 
hundred thousand dead bodies of Jews had been 
•arrieij out at different gates. The humane 
heart of Titus was deeply atfecled ; who, undeT 


under J 

ibo%e flccoimts, and while siirvcjniig Hie piles of 
Bead liodiCH of Jews under the walls, and in the 
visible parts of the city, raised his eye» and Imiids . 

, to heaven in solemn proieslation, that he would 
have prevcsited these dire calamities ; that the 

i obstinate Jews .had procured them upon their 
own heads. 

Josephus, the Jew, now earnestly entreated 
the leader John and his brethren to surrender to 
the Romans, and thus ^ave the residue of the 
Jews. But ho received Ju return nothing but 
insolent reproaches and imprecations ; John de- 
claring his firm persuasion that God would never 
Bulfcr his own city. Jerusalem, to be taken by 
the enemy! Alas, had he fu;^otten the history of 
liis own nation, and the denunciations of the , 
prophets ? Micah had foretold that in this very 
calamity they would prosumptnounly "lean upoa 
the Lord, and say. Is not the Lord amont; ns ? 
Ho evil shall come upon us." So blind and 
prcBumptijous are hypocrisy atid self-confidence! 
"The temple of the Lord, thie temple of the 

■ Lord, the temple of the Lord, are these," 

The famine in the city became (as might he 
expected) still more deadly. For want of food 
the Jews ate Uieir belts, sandals, skins of tbeif 
shields, dried grass, and even ordure of cattle.. 
JVow U Tcas that a noble Jeu'ess, wgeii hy the in' 

■ .^av0:wahle pangs ^hunger; slew and prepared far 
i feodktf oiBfi infant child.' She bad eaten half 
V the horriWe preparation, when the smell of food 

' brought in a hoard of soldiery, who threatened 
^iicr with instant death, if she did not produce to 
'them the food she had in possession. She being 
fJius compelled to obey, produced the remaining 
half of her child! The soldiers stood ughastt 
and tlie recital petrified (Iiu liwirois with korroi 


and congrahilations were poured on those whose 
eyes death had closed upon such horrid scenes. 
Humanity seems ready to sink at the recital 
ol' the woful events of that day. No words can 
reach the horrors of the situation of llie female 
part of the community at that period. Such 
scenes fgrce upon our recollection the tender 
pathetic address of our Saviour to the pious fe- 
lonies, who followed him, going to the cross:— 
" Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me; but 
weep for yourselves and for jour children ; for 
behold the days are coming, in which they shall 
say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that 
never bare, and the breasts that never gave 
■uck." Moses had long predicted this very 
ecenc. "The tender and delicate woman among 
you, (said he,) who would not venture to set the 
iole of her fool on the ground for delicateness { 
her eye shall be evil towards her young one, and 
toward her children, which she shall bear; for 
she shall rat tliem, for want of all things secret- 
ly in the siege and straitness wherewith thine en- 
emy shall distress thee in thy gales." Probably 
the liistory of the world will not afford a paral- 
lel to thi«. God prepared peculiar juil^enti 
for peculiarly horrid crimes! " Thise be the 
days of vengeance ; tliat all things tliat are writ- 
ten may he fulfilled/' Josephus declares, that 
if there had not been many credible witnesses of 
that awful fact, he never would have recorded 
it ; for, said he, " such a shocking violation of 
|v anturc never has been perpetrated by any Greek 
*(p barbarian." 
While famine thus spread desolation, the Ro- 
Ln&ns Anally succeeded in removing part of the 
Tjnner wall, and in poKsestiin^ Ihemst^lvcs of the 
* igh and sunouioaing tuwi*r uf Antonio, which 

tfeemcd to overlook the temple. TihiJ with hi» 
coiiiicil of war l)a<l formeil a determination to 
save the temj>le, to grace liis conquest, and re- 
maia an ornament to his empire. But God had 
not 80 determined. And " though there he ma- 
ny devices in a man's heart ; nevertheless ihe 
counsel of the Lord that shall stand." A Ro- 
.mau soldier violating the general order of Titus, 
suocecJed in htiriiut; a brand of fire into the 
got lea willow of the temple; and soon («« J 
righteous Heiiven would haie it!) tlie sacred ' 
I eoifice was iji flames. The Jews perceiving t 

this, rushel with horrid outcries to extinguish \ 
the fire. Titus too, flew to the spot in his char- f 

iot, with his chief officers and legions. With I 
lo^id command, and every token of anxiety, he 
onforced the extinguishing of the fire; but i> 
vain. So ijreal was the confusion, that no atten- | 

I tioQ was paid to him. His soldiers, deaf to all | 

cries, assiduously spread tho flftmes far and wide; 
I rushing at the same time on the Jews, sword In [ 

I hand, slajiug and trampling diiwn, or crushing. ;i 

I them to death against the walls. Many were i: 

plunged into the flames, and perished in the hur- ' 
ning of the temple. Tiie fury of the Roman , 
I soldiers slaughtered the poor, the unarmed, and | 

the rich, as well as men in arms. Multitudes of i 
dead bodies were piled round about the altar, to ^ 
which they had fled for pwjtection. The way 
leading to the inner court was deluged with 

^^^E^TituB finding the fire had not yet reached the 
^^^^Mer tem|)le. entered it with his superior offi- 
^^^Blrs, and surveyed its magnificence with silent 
^^^admi ration. He found it to exceed all he had 
heard. This view led him to renew his eflbrta 
to save thia stupendous pile of building, Oiough 

^L^ ^ 

I *-''"I 

■a many nf the out-buildings were gone. H« 
eveu entreated his soJdicrs to extiugnish the 
Hamcs, and appointed an oliker to punish any 
who should disobey. But all his renewed ef- 
forts were still in vain. The fechngs of his sol- 
diery were utterly unmanageable. Plunder, re- 
venge, and slaughter had combined to render 
tiieni deaf and must furious. A soldier suceeed- 
cd in liring the door posts of the inner temple, 
and the conflagration ^oon became genenil. i 

One needs almost a heart of steel in contci- 
])liitc the scenes which followed. The triunk- 
|)haiit Roman soldiers were in a most ungovern- 
able rage and fury. They were indeed instru- 
mcjrts prepnred for their work, to execute the 
nioit signal vengeance of Heaven ; the (liime of 
which waa now reaching its height! The Ro- 
mans alew of the Jews all before tliem ; sparing 
neither nge. ses. or rank. They seemed deter- 
mined to aniiiliilate tlie Jewish race on the spot, 
r ."-OT.t^ SP"! C;^iiii>i; pcuiiie I iiiose wno Bui'ren- 
dercd, and those who still fought ; all were alike 
flubjjcts of an indiscriminate slaughter. The 
fire of the temple at lens:;lh complclety envelop- 
ed the stupendous pile of building. Tlie fury of 
the flames exceeded description. It imprescod 
on distant spectators au idea tliat the whole city 
was ill flames. The ensuing disorder and tu- 
mult, Jo«iephn3 pronounces, to have been such 
as to baffle deseriptioii. The outciy of the Ro- 
man legions was as great as they could make. — 
And ihc Jews^ finding themselves a prey to the 
fury of both fire ami sword, exerted thcmi-elvea 
in the wildest aecei;ts of sr reaming. The peo- 
ple in the cily, and those on the hill. Tnutrially 
r^.'.pondud to uarh other in gronirs iiiid sci-cecbes. 
t^cople who bad eeemed just espirin^ throu^ , 



imine, derived new strength from unprece( 
' HceiiRS of horror and dsath, to deplore 
rrctclicdncsa. From mounlsin tu mounl 
1(1 from places disiant, laiuentatiuus echoed (o 
:h other. 

the temple was sinking under the ftiri" of 
the racing element, the mount on which it ^ood. 
ssonted in that part of it, (says the historian) to 
impress the idea of a lake of liquid lii-e ! The 
Wood of tlie slain ran in rivulets. The eacUi 
around became covered with the slain ; and the 
victorious Romans trampled over those piles of 
flie dead, in pursuit of the tJionsands who were 
from the points of their swoi'ds, in a 
rd, the roar and crackling of fire ; the ^hri'-ks 
thousands in despair; the dying !<ruans of 
iaods, and the si<;lits which met the eye 
■ever it was turned, were such as never he- 
had any parallel on earth. They prob.ihly 
much eKceeded all antecedent scenes of lior- 
as the ^niU which occasioned tliem, in 
trealment of the J^ord of Glory, exceeded 
ll ^uilt ever hefore known among men. 
A tragical event had transpired worihy of pap- 
itilar detail. Before the temple was wrapped 
flames, an impostor appeared amoriy: the Jews, 
iertliig a dniue commission; and ihat if the 
would follow him to the temple, they 
luld »ee siifns, wonders and deliverance. About 
thousand (mostly women and children) h]- 
ed him, and were in the ijalleries of the tem- 
, waiting for this promised deliverance, when 
w^ set to that b>ii:din^. Not one escaped, 
were consumed in the ':on9a;^rafion of the 
red eilificc! What muliitudcs are by false 
>pl»ets plunged in uterual fire ' 

^ place of the temple 


glorj- 1 

stupendous bliitdiiig, 
of life body i>f Christ, and of hie cliurth ; 
iyyie of the MiUeuiam. and of lic-affii. IJere iH 
reached its close, after tlw period of one U 
aaiid«nd thirty years, from Die lime nf its ()cdi- 
catJoD by Solomon ; and of mx hundred and thir- 
ty-nine years, from its beinj; rehtiiU in the days 
of Ua^ai, after Uie seventy jears captivity. - 
It IB singular, that it should be reduced to a ' 
not only eood after the feast of tlic pasac 
which conveued so many IhouKands of Jews 1 
Jerusaieoi to meet the ruins of their city and na- 
tion ; but that it should be consumed on (he 
same month, and same day of tlie month, on 
wiiich the Babylonians had before destrojed it-' 
by fire. 

Josephus records another strking event. \ 
seemed a si^n of the destmction of Jerusalem 
He says; ^addressing tlie Jews who survivod tl 
ruin) '* The fountains flow copionsly for Titi 
which to you were dried up. For before 1 
came, you kaow that bovli Siloam, and all thej 
springs without the city, fnik'd ; so that walclj 
was brought by the amphora, (a ves.-el.) 
now they are so almndant Jo your tncmies, as ti^ 
suiEce for themselves and'lheir catlle. Thi» 
wonder you also formerly experienced, when thn 
king of Babylon laid siege to your city." '. 

The pinesla of the temple, after the destruc- 
tion of their sacred edifice, betook themselves 
(those who had thus far escaped tiie general 
slaughter) to the top of one of its broken walls, 
where they set mourning ami famishing. On the A 
fifth day necessity compelled Ihem to descend^! 
«l|d bumbiy to ask pardon of Ibc Roman geiiersUj 


But Titus at this late period rejected, their peti- 
tion, saying ; " As the temple, for the sake of 
>vhich 1 would have spared you, is destroyed; it 
is but tit liic priests should perish also." All 
were [.iil to UL-ath. 

The obstiuale k»aders of the great Jewish fac- 
tions, beholding now the desperaleness of their 
cause, desired a coiifcreiice with Titus. One 
would iniaj^ine they would at least now lay down 
tlieir arms. Their desiring an interview with 
the triumphant Roman gehcral, appeared as 
though they would be >;lad to do this. But right- 
eous IJtiaven designed their still greater desti*uc- 
tioii. Titus after ail their mad rebellions, kind- 
ly offered to spare the residue of the Jews, if 
they would now submit. But strange to relate, 
they refused to comply. The noble general 
then, as must have been expected, was highly 
exasperated; and issued his general order, that 
he would grant no further pardon to the insur- 
i^ents. His legions now were ordered to " rar- 
a:jc and deslroy.^^ With tlie light of the next 
morning, arose the tremendous llame of the cas- 
tle of Antonio, the council chandler, register's 
oliice, and the noble palace of the cmeen Helena. 
These magniticent piles were reduced to ashes. 
The furious lej;:oiis, (executioners of divine ven- 
geance, E:<tk. i\. 5, C.) then flew through the 
lower city, of wiixh they soon became niasters, 
slaughtering and burnii^.g in every street. The 
Jews themselves aided the slaughter. In the 
royal palace, containing vast treasures, eight 
thousand four hundred Jews were murdered by 
their seditious brethren. Great nmnhcrs of de- 
serters from the furious leaders of faction, flock- 
cd to the Romans ; but it was too late. The 
general order was given, all should be slain. — 
Such therefore fell* 

The Roman soldiers, however, being at lengt 
weary with butchery, and more thaii satisfii 
with blood, for a short lime ehea tiled Ihei r swore 
and betool< themselves to plunder. They col 
lected multitudes of Jews, — husbaflds, wives,, 
chililren, and servants ; formed a market ; and 
set them up at vendue for slaves. They sold 
them for any trifle ; while purchasers were but 
few. Their law-giver, Moses, had forewarned 
them of lliis ; Deut. xxviii. 6G : "And ye shall 
be sold for bond men, and bond women ; and no 
man shall buy you." Tremendous indeed must 
the lot of those be, who reject the Messiah, and 
are found fighting against the Son of God. Of- 
ten hail these Jews heard read (but little it seems 
did they understand the sense of the tremendous 
passage) relative to the Jewish reJcclorB 
Christ, " He that sitteth in the Heavens si 
lau;r|i; the Lord shall have them in derision. 
Then shall hespcalc unfo them in his wrath, 
vex them in his sore displeasure. Yet ha 
set my king upon my holy bill of Zion, Thou 
sbalt break them with a rod of Iron ; thou shalt 
(lash them in pieces like a potter's vessel, 
" Thus saiUi the Lord, say, A sword, a sword is 
sharpened, and also furbished: it is sharpened 
to malte a sore slangliter ; it is furbished tfiat 
may i^litter; (said God by the prophet, Ezek. 
alluding to this very event;) the sword is sbaipi 
ed^andit is ftirbished to give it into the hand of tl 
stayer. Cry and hovi'l, son of man; smile upon tl 
thi,^h; smite lliy hands togcther.and let the svr 
be doubled a third time ; the sword of the sli 
I have set the point of the sword a^siijgl all 
gates, tliat tlieir hearts may faint, and lln-ir ruiw 
he multiplied : /ill, it is mude bright ! it is wrap- 
fed up for the slaughter," Such, &ud much 

Of- ( 

ems J 

lou s 1 

^^V cor 

more, were the divine denunciations of this t 
lc«ne, which the infidel Jews would not eac^ 
hut would incur! Aud even » merciful < 
slurunk not from the exoculion ! Let antichrls- 
tian powere, yea let all inlideU aud gospel des- 
pisere, consider this aud tremble ! 

The whole lower city, now in the poaseseioa 
of the Roman lepons. {after the respite noted,) 
was set on fire. But the insolence of the devo- 
ted Jews in a part of the higher city, remained 
unabated. They even insulted and exasperated 
their enemies, as though afraid the work of vett- 
gcancc might not be sufficiently executed. 

The Romans brought their engines to operate 
Upon the walls of this higher branch of tlie city, 
Hltll standing; which *oon gave way before tliem. 
Before their demolition, Titus reconnoitred the 
city, and its fortitications ; and expressed bis as- 
tonishment that it should ever fall before his 
arine. He escJaimed. " Had not God himself 
aided our operations, and driven the Jews from 
their fortreases; it would have been absolutely 
impossible to have taken them. For what could 
men and the force of engines have done against 
such towers as those ?" Yes, unless their Rock 
had sold them for their iniiptities. no enemy 
could have prevailed against Jerusalem. Jose- 
phus, who was an eye witness of all the scene, 
says ; " All the calamities, which ever befel any 
nation, since the beginning of the world, were in- 
ferior to the miseries of the Jews at this awfiil 

The upper city too fell before the victorious 
arms of the Roman conquerors. Titus would 
lisve spared all, who had not been forward in 
resisting the Romans ; and gave hi^ orders ac- 
cordingly. But hi& soldiers, cailuu* to all the 

feelings of humanity, slaughtered the aged and 
sick, as well as the mass of the people. The tall 
and most beautiful young men, however, were 
spared by Tilus to grace hiG triumph at Rome. 
Of the rest, many above the age of seventeen, 
were sent in chains to Egypt, to be disposed of 
as slaves. Some were reserved to be sacrificed 
on their amphitheatres, as gladiators; to be elaii) 
in sham tights, for the sport of their coaquerors. 
Others were distributed through the empire. — 
All who survived, under the age of seventeen, 
were exposed for sale. 

The triumphant general commanded what re- 
mained of the cit>-, to be razed to its foundation, 
except three of the most stately lowers, Mariam- 
ne, Hippocos, and Phasael. These should stand 
as monuments of the mugniticence of the place, 
and of his victory. A small part of the wall of the 
city at the west also, he commanded should bs 
spared, as a rampart for liis garrison. The oth- 
er parts of tlie city he wii^hed to have bo effec- 
tually erased, as never (o be recognized to have, 
been inhabited. The Talmud and Mamonides 
relate, tliat the foundations of the temple were 
so removed, tliat the site of it was ploughed by 
Terentius Rufus. Thus our Saviour predicted, 
that '^ there should not be left one stone upoa 

One awful occurrence is noted, as transpiring 
during tliese scenes; tliat eleven thousand Jews, 
under the guard of one Fronto, a Roman gener- 
al, were (owing to tbeir own obstinacy, and to 
the scarcity of provisions) litirallt/ starvtd It 
death ! 

Josephus informs that eleven hundred thou- 
sand Jews perished in this siege of Jerusalem ; 
that two hundred and thirty-seven thousand per- 

, tbe 


I ma 

ished in tliat last war in otber sieges and ban 
I)esii]e§ muUihides who perished by fHinine j 

fieslilcnce : making a total of at least fourti 
lundred thousand. Some hundreds of thoo*- 
sands, in sullen despair, laid violent hands on 
themselves. About ninety-seven tbousand were 
captured, and dispersed. Relative to the two 
great leaders of the Jewish factions, Simon and 
John ; they were led lo Rome, to grace the tri- 
umph of Titus ; after which Simon was scourg- 
ed and executed as a malefactor ; and John wos 
committed for life to dungeon. Thus ended 
' sir -violent factious contanlione. 
Tbe Roman army, before they left Jerusalem^ 
itODly demolished the buildings there, hut even 
(g up their foundations. How fatal was the 
vine judgment on this devoted city. Five 
months before it was the wonder of the world ; 
aud contained, al the commencement of the siege, 
more than a million and a half of Jews, natives 
ami visiters ; now it lay in total ruins, with 
not "one stone upon another ;" as Christ had 
denounced. These ruins Eusebius inlbrms us 
he belield. And Eleazer ia introduced by Jose- 
phns as exclaiming ; " Where is onr great city, 
which it was believed God inhabited." The 
nropbet Micab had predicted ; "Therefore shall 
Zion for your sakes he ploughed as afield, and 
Jerusalem shall become heaps, and (he moun- 
tain of the Lord's house as the high places of the 
forest." A captain of the army of Tilus, did ia 
fact plough where some part of the foundation 
of the temple had stood, as the Talmud records, 
and thus fulfilled this-prediction. 

Jesus Christ had foretold of this destruction, 
that " there should be great tribulation, such as ', 
was not since the beginning of the world." And 

e event Josephus says ; " If the mlsfortHin 
i Dationa from the beginning of the world^ 
■were compared with those which befel the Jews', 
they would appear far less." Again; "No oth- 
er city ever suffered such things; as no othef 
generation from the beginning of die world, was 
ever more fruitful in wickedness." 

Other parts of Judea were still to be subdue J. 
Macbcrus was attacked. Seventeen hnndi'ed 
Jews surrendered and were slain; also three 
thousand fugitives taken in the woods of Jardes. 
Titus at Ceesarea celebrated in great splendour 
the birth day of his brother Domitian, Here a 
horrid acene, accordii^ to the bloody customs of 
those times, was presented. To grace this oc- 
casion, ntore than two thousand five hundred 
Jews fell; some by burning; some by fighting 
with wild beasts ; aud some by mutual combat 
with the sword. 

Massada was besieged. The Jewish com- 
mander, in despair, induced the garrison first to 
destroy their stores, and then themselves. They 
(nine hundred and sixty in number) consented 
to the horrid proposal. Men, women, and chil- 
dien took then- seats upon the ground, and offer- 
ed their necks to the sword. Ten men were 
selected to execute the fatal deed. The dread- 
ful work was done. One of the ten was then 
chosen to execute the nine, and then himself. — 
The nine being put to death, and fire being set 
to the place, the last man plunged his da^er in- 
to his own heart. 

Seven persons. (womei>and children,) found 
menus to runctal themselves, an4 escape the 
ruin. When the Romans approached, these 
ieven related to them tlieae horrid events. 

Most of the remaining places now. tlirw 
aulJen despair, gave up all opposition, ac 
mitted to the coii(|ucrors. Tims Judca b 
as a desolate wildcjftcss ; and tlie following pas- 
sage in Isaiali had &t least a primary accomplish- 
ment: " Until the cilies be wasted without in- 
habitant ; and the houses without man ; and the 
land be utterly desolate 5 and the Lord have re- 
moved man far away, and there be a great for- 
■aking in the midst of the land." 

A hne of prophecies is found in the sacred or- 
acles, which relate to a signal temporal destnitS 
tioii of the most notorious enemies of the king- 
dom of Jesus Christ. Those were lo have a 
two-fold accomplislimeDt^ first upon the Jews ; 
and secondly upon the great AnticliriBt of the 
I last days, typified by the infidel Jews. Accord- 

' 'igly tliose prophecies in the Old Testament are 

( ever found in close connexion with the Millenj- 

I um. The predictions of our Saviour, in Matt, 

xsiv. Mark xiii. and Lid;e xxi. are but a new 
tdilion of these sacred prophecies. Thia hllB 
' hcen noted, as " t/ie degtruction rif the city and 

^^^^^tmpk foretold." It is so indeed ; and mort. — 
^^^^Kb is also a denunciation of the destruction of the 
^^^^Breat Antichrist of the last days. The ccrtaintj 
^^^^Ef this will appear in tlie fulluwing things. New 
^^^^B'es lament writers decide it. The Thcssaloni- 
^^^^KnE, baviug heard what our Lord denounced, that 
^^^^KlI those things hefud predicted should take 
^^^^^lacc DU tka! gehtratioii ; were trembling with 
1 the apprehension, that the coming of Christ pre- 

dicted, would theli very soon burst upon the 
- world. Paul writes to them, (2 Thes. ii.) and 

^^^Hjbcseeches them by (his coming of Christ, not to 
^^^^Be shaken iu mind, or troubled with such an ap* 

licted cotu'^ 

ing of Christ, as it related to others beside the 
Jews,) nas Dot to take place on that generation. 
It was iiot to come lill the Antichrist iaii aposta- 
sy come first ; that man of sttf was first to be re» 
vealed. This loiif; apostasy was to he accomplisli- 
ed, before the noted coming of Christ in ils more 
important sense be fultilled. After the Roman 
government, which hindered the rise of the man 
of sin, should be taken out of tho way, Paul says, 
" Tiien shall that wicked ouc be revealed whom 
the Lord shall consume with the spirit of hit 
mbuth, and destroy with the brightness of his 
comi'wg." Here theiwiathe predicted cowling of 
Chrisl. in its more interesting sense, in the bat- 
tle of that great day, which introduces tlie Mil- 
lenium. Here is a full decision that these noted 
denunciations of Christ alluded more especialtr 
(though not primarily) to a coming whidi is atiJl 

The same is decided by Christ himi^elf, 
Rev. xvi. After the sisth vial, in the drying 
of the Turkish Euphrates, three unclean spii 
of devils, like frogs, go fi:>rth to the kinga of t] 
earth, and of all the world, to gather them to * 
great battle. The awl'ul account is interrupt 
by this notire from the mouth of Christ; 
15, "Behold, I corneas a thief. Blessed is 
that watchcth and keepeth his garments ; lest he 
walk naked, and they see his shame." This is 
as though our Lord shoul^^Ia; ; now the time ia 
at hand, to which my predictions oi coming 
Ihitf, principally, alluded. Now is the time whi 
my people on earth shnll need to watch, «s 1 
reeled, when predicting my coming to destri 
first the lype ot Anliciirist, and secoailty the 
titype- ; 


The predictions in the prophefs, whicll j 
teivud an incipient fHlfilment in the liestfuca 
pf Jenualem, were to receive a more intercBtu^' 
Jllllilment in ChriA'? coming to destroy hia Miti- 
Pchristiaii Toes, Hence it is that the seventh vial 
is called (Rev. xvi. 14,) "the battle otthnl great 
day of God Almighty ;" cli^arljr alluding to tiiat 
great day noted through the prophets. And of the 
»ame event il is said, Rev. s. 7 ; " ihe myslerj 
jOf God shall be finii-hed. as he kalh declared to ■ 
las itrvants. the projihcls."" Here again the bI- 
n clearly is to the many predictions in tKe 
prophets of the destruction of the enemies of 
Christ's kinf;dom, which were to receive an in- 
cipient fulfilment in the destruction of Jcnisa- 
_Iem; and a far more interesting one, in the 
weeping from die earth the last antichristiati 
powers, to introduce the millennial kingdom of 
Christ. We accordingly iiud those predictiona 
through the prophets clearly alluding to the last 
days, and the introduction of the Millenium. 

Viewing the destruction of Jerusalem then, as 
but a type of an event now pending upon anti- 
"^hristian nations, we peruse it with new inter- 
,_ . ; and it must he viewed in the light of a moat 
Wpressive warning to this age oi the world.— 
The factions, madness, and self-ruin of the foP^ 
Irer, give but a practical comment upoa 
.flie various predictions of the latter. Three 
[tpeat and noted fiic^tis inti oduccd the destnic- 
Von of Jerusalem. And of the destruction of An- 
kicbrist we read (perhaps alluding to that very 
tbircunistance) Rev. xn. J9; "And the great 
titj yf&s divided into three parts.'' Then it fof> 
Mows; " and the cities of the nations fell; and 
^^reat Babylon cuine in remembrance bt lure Cod 
t unto her liiecupuf tbeTTiucof ttieficK^ 


ness of his wrath." In the desolation of Gog 
and his bands, faction dmws the sword of exter- 
mination. " I will call for a sword against him 
throughout all my mountains, saith the Lord 
God ; every man's sword shall be against his 
brother." Ezek. xxxviii. 21. 

The great coalition against the Jews, in the 
tinje of Jehoshaphat, was destroyed by the sword 
of mutiny and faction : See 2 Chro. xx. And 
in allusion to this very battle which God fought 
for his church, the vast coalitions of Antichrist, 
in the last days, when the Jews are restored, is 
.said to be gathered " to the valley of Jehosha- 
phat :" See Joel iii. The various circumstan- 
ces of the destruction of Jerusalem, afford a live- 
ly comment on the many denunciations of the 
battle of that great day of God Almighty, which 
awaits the antichristian world ; while it is fully 
evident, that they more especially allude to the 
tremendous scenes of judgment, which shall in- 
troduce the Millenium. 






The subject of tliis chapter is introduced with! 
t concise view of the expulsion of the ten tribes 
of Israel fiora the promised land. The tea 
tribes revolted from the house of David, early 
in the reigu of Rcboboam, son and successor of 
king Solomon. They received from tliis yoiuig 
prince treatment, which was considered impoli- 
tick and rough; upon which they Eeparated them- 
selves from tlml; branch of the house of Israel, 
who, from that time, haie been distinguished b* 
Ae ntune of Jews. They submitted to anothr 
king, Jeroboam. And Ibis breach Was never a 
ter healed. Jeroboam, to perpetuate and widen 
this breach, and apprehending that if the Jewi 
and ten tribes amicably met for publick worship, 
according to the law of God, ihe rupture be- * 
tween them would probably soon be healed, set 
up two golden calves, one in Dan, and one in 
Bethel ; and ordered tlial the ten tribes of Is- 
rael should meet there for their publick worship. 
tietLu& "made Israel toau." Aud would to God 


he had been the last who has made the professed 
worshippers of Jehovah " to sin,'' by assigning 
them different places of worship, from motives 
not more evangehcal than those of Jeroboam. 

The ten tril3es thus went off to idohitry. A 
line of kings succeeded Jeroboam ; but none of 
them, to the time of the expulsion, were true 
worhippers of the God of Israel, hy their apos- 
tasy, folly, and idolatry, the ten trib( s were pre- 
paring themselves for a loiig and doleful rejec- 
tion, an outcast state for thousands of years. — 
This Moses had denounced 5 Deut, xxviii. And 
this God fultilled. 

Tiglah-Pilnezer, king of Assyria, captured the 
tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of 
Manassah, who lay east of Jordan, and placed 
them in Halah, Harah, and Ilabor, by the river 
Gozen. — 1 Chro. v. 2G. About twenty years 
after, (134 years before the Babylonisli captivity 
of the Jews, and 725 years l)efore Christ,) the 
rest of the ten tribes continuing impenitent, 
Shalmanezer, the succeeding king of Ass}ria. at- 
tacked Samaria, took the remainder of the icn 
tribes, in the reign of Hoshea, king of Israel, 
carried them to Assyria, and placed them with 
their brethren in Halah and Habor, by the river 
Gozen in Media — 2 Kings, xvii. This final ex- 
pulsion of Israel from the promised land, was 
about 94.3 years after they came out of Egypt. 
The king of Assyria placed in their stead, in Sa- 
maria, people from Babylon, Cutha, Ava, Ha- 
mah, and Sapharvaim. Here was the origin of 
the moni'.rel Samaritans, 

From this captivity the ten tribes were never 
recovered. And they have Ioni» seemed to have 
been lost from the earth, 'i hey seem to have 
been indeed " outcast,'^'^ from the social world, 

and the knowledge of civilized man. Tl 
Jews, long afler, were dispersed among 
nations ; but have ever been known as Jews. 
But not so with Israel. They have seemed 
strangely to disappear from the world ; and 
for 2500 years to have been xttte.riy lost. 

What are we to believe concerning the ten 
tribes '/ Are they ever again to be known as the 
natural seed of Abraham ? Are they now in ex- 
istence as a distinct people? If so, where are 
they to be found ? All parts of the world are 
now so well known, llial one would conceive 
the comfnon wealth of Israel cannot now be 
found among tlie civilized nations. Must we 
look for Ihern in a Ravage state ? If so, the 
knowledge of their descent must be derived from 
a variety of broken, circumstantial, traditionary 
evidence. Who, or where, then, sire the people 
who furnish the greatest degree of this kind of 
evidence ? 

An answer, relative to their restoration, will 
be involved in this chapter; and an answer to 
the other questions, may be expected in the chap- 
ter following. 

That the Jews are to he restored fo Palestine 
as Jews, seems evident from a variely of consid- 
erations. And that the ten tribes of Israel will 
there be united with tliem, seems also to 
plainly predicted in the prophets. 

Let the following things he considered: 
1. The preservation of the Jews, as a 
tinct people, among the many nations whither 
they have been dispersed, now for nearly 1800 
years, aflords great evidence, to say the least, 
that the many predictions, which seem (o fore- 
tcl such a restoration, arc to have a literal ac- 
complishment. This their preservution 

I aid- 
will . Ji 

Iher * 

is a J 

most signal event of Provideucc. Nothing like 
it lias ever, in any other instance, been known 
on earth ; except it be the case with the ten 
tribes of Israel. Other dispersed tribes of men 
have amalgamated with the people where they 
have dwelt, and have lost their distinct existence.. 
And nothing but the <spccial hand of God could' 
have prevented this in the case of the Jews. — 
The event then shows, that God has great things 
in store for them, as Jews. What can these 
things be, but the fulfUinent of those many pro- 
phecies, which predict tb'eir restoration to the 
land of their fathers, aa well as their conversion 
to the christian faith ! 

2. That people have never, aa yel, posaesped 
all the land promised to them ; nor have ihey 
possessed any part of it sa lon^ as promised. — 
Hence their restoration to th:il land, is essential 
lo the complete fulfilment of those ancient pro- 
mises. They were to possess the land to the 
river Euphrates, and forevrr ; or to the end of 
the world. God promised to Abraham, Gen. xv. 
1 8 — '■ D nto thy seed have I given this land, from 
the river of Egypt, imto the great river, the riv- 
er Euphrates." Exod. xxiii. 31 — " And I 
will set thy bounds from the Red Sea, even un- 
to the sea of the Hiilistines, and from the 
desert unto the river (Euphrates) ; for 1 will de- 
liver the inhabitants of the land into your handa, 
and Ihon shalt drive them out before thee."— ^ 
Deut. xi. 24 — '■ Every place whereon the sole 
of thy feet shall stand, shall be yours, from the 
wilderness and Lebanon, from the river. thQ 
river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea, 
shall your coast be." Here, then, are tlie boun- t- 
daries of this ancient divine grant to Abraham, 
iiui iui natural s«ed. Begituiing at the river of 


Egj'pt, (a river not far from the north-east 
ner of the Red Sea, and running into the 
terranean.) Thence northward, ob the si 
the said sea, as far as the point due west of 
Mount Lebanon. Thence eastward, over said 
iQotiiitain, away to the river Euphrates. Thence 
southwai'd, as far as the south hne of Sj'ria.^ 
Thence westward,-' including tlie whole of Syrii 
lo the first named river. The whole of this teS 
ritorj', the natural seedof Ahraham were topo^ 
sess, " for ever." The inhabitants ■' should b« 
driven out before them." But this people an- 
ciently possessed but a Fmall part of this terri- 
tory. There was indeed a kind of typical poa- 
sesaion of it, in the rei^ of Solomon ; — which 
reign was a type of the Millemiinm. (See I'sahii 
Isxii.) David in his wars, which were typical 
of the wars that will introduce the Millennium, 
subdued and put under tribute the Syrians, Mo- 
abites, Ammonites, and most of the nation! 
dwelling inthe above named territories. And 
they continued in subjection in the reign of So- 
lomon. (See 1 Kings, iv. 21.) But those na>- 
tions were not then driven out; nor was their 
Tand possessed by the children of Abraham. — 
They afterwai-d threw oif their yoke, and were 
extremely troublesome to the people of God. 
They were only made tributary durmg a part of 
two reigns. But God promised — Exod. ssiii. 
31 — "I will set thy bounds from the Bed Sea 
even to the sea of the Philistines, and from tJjc 
desert unto tlie river (Euphrates.) For f will deli- 
ver the inhabitantsof the land into your hands, and 
Ihou shall drive, thtm out be/ore iheeJ^ The land 
east of Canaan, and away to the riyer Euphra- 
tes, was never possessed by Israel. Their lite- 

30S- I 


1 possession of that extent of territory, n 
D an event still future. 
Tlie promiaed land was given to Israel " for 
an everliisting possession ;'' Gen. svii. 8. Surelj 
this must mean a iong:er time than they did in 
ages past possess it. This promise remains then 
to beyet fullilled. It must mean an undisturbed 
possession of it, so long as tlie possession of it 
en earth may be desirable ; or to the end of tlic 
world. We accordingly lind that people, nt the 
time of the introduction of the Millennium, ex- 
postulating with God, and pleading that ancient 
grant; Isa. Ixiii. 17, 18; "0 Lord, why hast 
thou made us to err from thy way, and hardened 
©iir heart from thy fear ? Return, for thy ser- 
Tants' sake, the tribes of thine inheritance. The 
people of thy holiness have possessed it (thine 
inheritance) but a little while : our advcraarieg 
have trodden down thy sanctuary. We are thine. ■ 
Thou never bearest rule over them; they are 
not called by thy name." Here is a plea, put 
into the mouths of the ancient people of the 
Lord, at the time of their restoration, not long 
"before the battle of the great day, with a dc- 
icription of which battle this chapter begins. — 
They expostulate, relative to the sovereignty of 
God, in the resting of the veil of blindness and 
lardness so long on their hearts, during their long 
ifidel state. They plead that they are God^B 
ferrants, according to the ancient entail of fhii 
nvenant. They plead for a restoration ;— 
bd plead that ttieir nation had enjoyed that, 
' ■ everlasting inheritance, but a Utile while; 
^t that a people not called by God's name, nor 
governed by his word, had trodden down tlie 
sanctuary; a description exactly fulfilled by the 
Tttrlci. This fully impliee the entering again ^f 

tbe Jewa upon their aucicnt inheritance, in thfti 
last dajs. 

3. 1 shall now adduce some of the ntimeroua 
express predictions of this event. In the pro- 
phecy of Ezeliiel, the restoration of the Jews 
and of Israel to their ovi-n land, as well as their 
conversion in the last days, is clearly predicted. 
In f Impter xxxri. We liave their long dispersion, 
and their guilty cause of it. But God, in the 
last days, works for his own name's sake, and 
recovers them. God saya, "And Iwill sanctiiy ntiy 
great name, which was profaned among the hea? 
then ; and the heathen shall know that 1 am the 
Lord, — when I shall be sanctified in you before 
their eyes. For I will take you from among the 
heathen, and gather you out of all countries, and 
will bring you into your own land. And I will 
Bprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be 
clean ; from all your filthiness, and from all your 
idols will I cleanse you. A new heart also will 
I give unto you, and a new spirit will I put with- 
in you ; and I will take away the stony heart out 
of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of 
flesh. And I will put my spirit within you, and 
cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall 
keep my judgments and do Ihem. And ye shall 
dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers, and 
ye shall he my people, and I will be your God. 
Then shall ye remember your own evil ways — 
and shall loathe yourselves. — Not for your sakei 
do I tliis. saith the Lord God, be it known unto 
you. Thus sailh the Lord God ; in tlie day that 
I shall have cleansed you from all your iniquities. 
I will also cause you to dwell in the cities, aa<l 
the wastes shall be builded. And the desolate 
laud shall be tilled, whereas it lay desolate in the 
sight of all the heathen that passed by. And 


■, DC 

I be 

I ing 


they shall say, Tliis land llmt was !!0 de<ul^ 
W come like the garden of Eden ; and tlic i 
r 'ftiid dcsolsilc and ruined cities are become rcnei 
and are inlttibilcd. Then the liealhcn, who are 
IcH: round about you, shall knuw that 1 the Lord, 
build the ruined places, and plant Uiat which wai 
desoliitc. 1 the Lord have spoken it, and I wilt 
do it." Here is their regeneration ; having a 
ucw heart; being cleansed from all sin. And 
beside this, we find expressly promised, their be- 
ing reinstated in the land of their fathers, which 
had long lain waste. They rebuild their ancient 
That this is in tlie last dat"8, connected 
Ith the introduction of the MiJIcnnium, the 
connexion of the whole passage, and the follow- 
ing chapters, fully decide. Both houses of the 
descendants of Abraham, (viz. Israel and Judah,) 
"" 'e recovered, as will he seen. Those prcdic* 
ins cannot be fulfUted merely by the conver- 
ion of that people. For over and above their 
express conversion, ibey are estabhshed in ths 
land of their fathers. 

The prophet proceeds further to predict and 
illustrate tlie wonderful event, by the resurrec- 
tion of a valley of dry bones ; chap, xxxvii. ; 
which figure God tlius explains : " Son of man, 
these bones are the whole house of Israel. Be- 
hold, tliey say, our bones are dried, and our hope 
is lost ; we are cut off for our parts. Therefore 
prophecy, and say unto them ; Thus saith the 
Ijord God; Behold, my people, 1 will open 
jour graves, and cause you to come up out of 
jour graves, and bring you into the land of Is- 
rael. And ye shall know that 1 am the Lord, 
when I have opened your graves, my people, 
and brought you up out of yonr graves, and shall 
put my spirit in you, and ye shall five, and I 
glace jou in your own laud. Thwi shall j 

ind sball 
id I shall i 

know thut 1 the Lord have epoben it, and pel 
formed it, saith the Lord." 

Tiic re-union of the two branches of (hat 
pie follows, by the figure of the two sticks, taken 
hy the prophet. On the one he writes, " for 
Judah, and for the children o^ Israel his com- 
panions." Upon the other; " For Joseph, lh< 
stick nf Ephntiin, and for all Uie house of h 
Lie companions." 

l-est" any should say, the prediction whii 
here seems to forctel the restoration of the ti 
tribes, as well as thatof the Jews, were uccoi 
phsbcd in-the restoration of that few of the Is 
elites, who clave to the Jews under the house 
David, and the ten tribes are irrecoverably lost;^ 
it is here exjiressed that the Jews and those Isra- 
elites, their companions, were 9)'mholized by one 
■tick ; and Epbraim, all the house of Israel, (the 
whole ten tribes,) by the other stick. These 
•ticks miraculously become one in the prophet'i 
bnnd ; which is thus explained. "Thus saith the 
Lord God ; Behold, I will fake the children of 
Israel (their general ancient name, including the 
twelve tribes) from among the heathen, whilher 
they he gone ; and I will gather them on every 
side, and bring them into their own land. And 
I will make them one nation in the lajtd, upon 
the mountains of Israel ; and one king shall be 
king to them all ; and they shall be no more two 
nations, neither shall they be divided into two 
kingdoms any moru at all. And they shall dwell 
in the land Uiat I gave unto Jacob, my servant, 
wherein your fathers have dwelt, and they shall 
dwell therein, even they and their children, and 
their children's children, forever." Can a doubt 
here rest on the subject, whether the Jews and 
Uie ten tribu sball be re-e«tabliihcd iu Palestine? 

:en ■ 

for I 

m- I 




Ian sfich divine testimony as this lie done away) 
lut similar testimonies to the point are nuniur- 
- ous in llie prophuis. Thi^ pasc^age lias never 
T('.t received a primary, or partial fnifilinent.^ 
Tiie whole of it remains to be fulfilJcd. SStoA 
of the predictions, which are to have an iiiliinate- 
accomplishment 1n this final rcsLoralion, had a 
primary one in the restoration from tlie seventy 
years captivity in Babylon. But even this caD» 
not belaid of the prophecy under coiBiilerattoitt 
([None of those written on the second stick, in the 
,d of the piophet, have ever yet been recov- 
ered. The whole passage is intimately connet^ 
cd with the battle of that great day. which intra- 
dice3 the Millenoium; as appears in the two fol- 
lowing chapters. Here the house of Israel enter 
a^in upon their everlasting possession of the 
land of promise, which God engaged to AbnUiam. 
A reiteration of these predictions is intermin- 
gled with the predictions concerning Gog, or the 
Sowers of Antichrist, to be collected against the 
cws, after their restoration, in the two chapter! 
■ucceeding. '■ In the latter years thou (Gog) 
■halt come into the land that is brought back 
from the sword, and gathered out of many peo- 
ple, against the mountains of Israel, which have 
heen always waste, (or have lain waste for so 
many centuries during the dispersion of Israel 5) 
but it (that nation) is brought hack out of the 
nations, and they shall dwell safely all of them. 
Thou shalt ascend and come hke a storm ; thou 
shalt he- like a cloud to cover the land, thou and 
k\\ thy bands, and many people with thee. Thus 
saith the Lord God ; it shall also come to pass,' 
(hat at the same time, shall things come into thjr 
tnind, and thou abalt think an evil thought; and 
tbou ibaJl iay, 1 will go up to the land of uamiQ- 

»d Tillages, (the state of the Jews in Palestine, 
»fter their restoration)!; I will go to lliem tiiat are 
at rest, that dwell safely, all of Ihcm, dwelling. 
without walls, and having neither bars nor gatee -, 
to take a spoil, and to take a prey, to turn thine 
hand upon the desolate places tliat arc now in- 
habited, and iipon the people that are gathered 
out of the nations, who have gotten cattle and 
goods, who dwell in the midst of the land." — 
'■ Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, 
thou and all thy bards. So will I make my ho- 
ly name known in the midst of my people Israel; 
and the heathen shall know that 1 am the Lord, 
the Holy One of Israel. Behold, it is come, it 
ij done, sai(h the Lord God. This is the day 
whereof ! have spoken. And they that dwell in 
the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set 
on lire and burn the weapons — seven years. 

The whole account islhus divinely summed 
up. "Therefore, thus saitb the Lord God; now 
will 1 brinif again the captivity of .lacob, anj 
have mercy upon the whole house of Israel, ai)^ 
will be jealous for my hoi} name ; after that Ihd 
have borne their shame, arid all their lrespB?s< 
whereby they have trespassed against me, whri 
they dwelt safety in their land, and none ma^ 
them afraid. When 1 have hrouuht them aga^^ 
from the people, and gathered them otit of tlicfp 
enemies' lands, and am sanctilied in them in the 
fflght of many nations; then shall they know that 
I am the Lord their God, who caused Ihem In be. 
led into captivity among the healheu ; biit 1 havfi 
gathered them into their own land, and left noiiii 
of them (here (among the heathen) any more a 
neither will 1 hide my face any more from tlicm, 
for 1 have poured out my Sjtirit ufjon the house 
«f Israel, saith the Lord Cod/' It seems &< 

1 set 

3- j; 


now I 


Ihcir I 

Ihe I 

l»t J 

aa i 


II P'opl^ 

^^^r destrc 

I though this were enough, if nothing n 
' (juoled from the prophets to prove our 
juld be deemed insuflk 
would be apt to say, nothing that inspiration caa 
assert upon the point, could be deemed suSI^ 
eient ! 

But that it may appear that the prophetic 
writings unite to exhibit this as a great object of 
Ibe christian's belief, I shall note some of the 
other predictions of it. 

In Isaiah xi. the stem from the root of Jesse ii 
promisgd. The Millennium follows, when the 
cow and the hear shall feed togctlier, and the 
wolf and the lamb unite in love ; and nothing 
more shall hurt or offend. " And it shall come 
to pass in that day that the Lord shall set hii 
hand again, the second time, to gather the rem- 
nant of his people, who shall he left, from Assy- 
ria and from Egypt, and from Fathros, and from 
Cush. and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from 
Ilamiih, and from the isles of the sea. And he 
shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall 
assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather to- 
gether the dispersed of Judah, from the four 
corners of tlie earth." Here just before the. 
Millennium, the Jews and ten tribes are collected 
from their long dispersion, by the hand of Omni- 
potence, 6et a second time for their recovery. — 
A body of the Jews, and some of several other 
tribes, were recovered from ancient Babylon. 
God is going, in the last days, to make a second, 
ond more effrcttial recovery fiom mystical Baby- 
lon, and from the four quarters of the earth. The 
prophel proceeds ; " And the Lord shall utterly 
destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with 
■Ijis mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the 
river, and shall unite it iu tlie aeven atreaHrii'a 

iBike men go over dry shod. And there shall 
lie an highway for tlie remnant of his people, 
which shall be lel't from Assyria ; like as it was 
to Israel in the day that he ciame up out of ihS-J 
land of Eg)pt." Mr. Scott, upon this [laasage^^ 
says; "lor the Lord will then remove aJl 
9t-ai:les hj the same powerful interposition, that 
be vouchsafed in behalf of Israel, when He sep- 
arated the tongue, or bay of the Red Sea, and 
destroyed that hindrance to the departure of Is- 
rael ; and with a mighty wind he will so sepa- 
rate the waters of the river Euphrates, in all its 
streams, that men may pass over dry shodl Thus 
an highway shall be made for Israel's return, aB 
there was for their ancestors to. pass fi-om Egjpt 
into Canaan. This part of the chapter contains 
a prophecy, which certainly remains yet ti> be 
accomplished." Bishop Lowth says the same ; 
and adds, as quoted by Mr. Scott, "This part 
the chapter, foretels the glorious times 
church, which shall be ushered in by tlie restoi 
lion of the Jewish nation, when they ^halt ci 
brace the gospel, and be restored to lhfirowi_ 
coAutry. This remarkable scene of Providence 
is plainly foretold by most of the prophets ; and 
by St. Paul.'' We thus have ilie testimony of 
those great men in favour of a Hteral restoration 
of the Jews to their own land, being here predic-. 
ted. And here ia adrying up of a mighty rivei 
to prepare the way for the event. A river 
the symbol of a nation. When Israel wei 
to be redeemed from Egypt, the Red Sea wai 
to be dried before them. When they were t( 
be redeemed from Babylon, the Euphrates w 
by Cyrus to be dried or turned, to accompl: 
the event. And in their last restoration to P( 
lettinc, (ere long to be accomplished,) auolhi 



be f 

nej I 

the J 


and I 

^^ of II 


^^ tic 

lat mystical river is to be diicd up. The sixth * 
!7ial dries up the mystic Euphrates, that the war 
of the kings of the east may be prepared. Thia 
be fulfilled on the Turks. Perhaps the 
event is now transpiring. This river is to be 
■mitten in its seven slnnms; as stated in thi? 

iphecy of Isaiah ; perhaps indicaliiif^, that the 

rks, be they ever so powerful in proviticei 
ind resources, as seven is a number of perfec- 
tion, they yet shall fall by the remarkable hand 
ofGod, to accommodiitc the return of his ancient 
people. These prophetic hints give an interest 
to the present strutg;le3 in the south-east of Ea- 

In Jeremiah, xxiii. 6, S, is the restoration of 
Israel. "In his days, (i. e. under the milieanial 
reign of the ri^teous branch raised up to Da- 
rid.) Juibh shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell 
safely: I will gather the remnant of my Hock (uit 
of all countries, whither I have driven them, and 
will bring them again to their folds. Therefore, 
behold the days come, sailh the Lord, that they 
shall no more say, The Lord livctli, who brought 
up the children of Israel out of the land^of 
tgypt ; but, The Lord liveth, who brought up, 
and who led the house of Israel out of the nortii 
country, and from all countries vf hither 1 have 
driven them, and they shall dwell in their owa 
land." As this event is under the reign of Christ; 
to it has never yet been fiilhlled. It is an evest 
of the last days ; and plants the ancient people 
of God in their own land. 

The same comparison of the same event, we 
find in Isaiah, xvi. 14. lo. After denouncing 
iheir long dispersion, for their suis; God says, 
" Therefore, behold tlie days come, saith Si? 
Lord, that it shall no more be said, Xlic I 

bveth that brought up the children of Israel out 
of the land of Egypt ; but the Lord livelh that 
brought up the children of Israel from the land of 
the north, and from all the lands whither I ' 
driven them; and I will bring them into 
land, tliat I gave unto their fathers." 

In laaiah sviii. a land shadowing with win{^ 
the last days, is by the Most High addressed, and 
called to aid this restoration of that people of God. 
" Go, ye swift messengers, to a nation scattered 
and peeled, to a people terrible from the begin- 
ning hitherto ; a nation meted out, and trodden 
down ; whose land the rivers have spoiled. In 
that day shall the present be brought unto the 
Lord of hosts, of a people acBttered and peeled, 
and from a people terrible from the beginning 
hitherto ; a nation meted out and trodden under 
foot ; whose land the rivers have spoiled, to the 
place of the Lord of hosts, the Mount Zion." 
The people here described, (to be brought by 
that land addressed, as a present to the Lord, to 
Mount Zion, or to Palestine,) are evidently the 
descendants of Abraham, and an event of the last 
days. A further CKplanation of this chapter, is 
to be given in the last chapter of this work. 

The same thing is noted in Isaiah Ix. 
Jewish church is called upon ; " Arise, shine, 
thy light is come, and the glory of the Jjoi 
ri:!en upon thee. The gentiles shall come 
thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy r 
iiig. Who are these that fly as cloudt, and 
doves to their windows ? ^'""'^'j" *^ '^'^ 
wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish fii 
bring thy sons from far, their silver and 
gold with them, unto the name of (he Lord 
God, and to the Holy One of Israel, because 
hath glorified thee." Here arc ships conveyil 

ndof I 




hall 1 

Jews to PaleEttne, as clouds and ae doves 
ir windows. Chap. Ixvi. 20: " And Ihey shall 
bring of your brethren for an oflering unto the 
Lord, out of all nations, upon horses, and in 
chariots, and in litters, and upon mules, and upon 
swill beasts, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, 
eaith the Lord, as the children of Israel bring an 
offering in a clean vessel unto the house of the 
Lord." InZephauiah, iii. 10, (connected with 
the battle of the great day, and the Millennium,) 
we read ; " From the rivers of Ethiopia my sup- 
pliants (or worshippers) shall bring my otfering, 
even the daughter of my dispersed ;" as the 
passage should be rendered. 

In Amos, ix. H, 1 5, is a prediction of this 
event. " And I will bring again the captivity of 
my people Israel, and they shall build the waste 
cities, and inhabit them', and they shall plant 
vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; and I 
will plant them upon their land, and they shall 
no more be pulled up out of their land, which 1 
have given them, saith the Lord God." This 
restoration is surely future. For after the res- 
toration from the Babylonish captivity, they were 
again expelled from their land, now for many 
centuries. But after the restoration here prom- 
ised, God says, " They shall no more be pulled 
upoutof their land.'' This shows that tlie res- 
toration here proniif-cd, is both future and liter- 
al. Jer. xsx. 3 ; " for lo, the daja come, saith 
tlie Lord, that I will bring again the captivity of 
my people, Israel and Judah, saitli the Lord; 
and 1 if ill cause them to return to the land that 
[ gave to their fathere, and they shall possess it." 
Li the restoration from Babylon, Israel was not 
f returned. And the Jews possessed their lan d I 

t 1 


to be f<iltilled. Read (he whole SIst cliaptftr of 
Jeremiah, and you will tind the reafoi'Hiion of the 
Jews, and the ten tribes, to tlie land of iheir fa- 
tilers, in the Inst days ', and their continuance id 
it, so long as the san, ninou, and stars endure. 
" If those ordinances depart from before me, 
saith the Lord, (i. e. of the sun, moon and stars) 
then the seed of Israel shall ccasn from being a 
nation before me forever." God here piimiiies 
"the city (Jeruaaiem) shall be built to the Lo " ~ 
it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down : 
more forever." Here God engages tli:it 
Ephraim is God's firrt born ; so be will earm 
ty remember him still, and surely have 
upon him, for his bowuls are pained with his li 
outcast stale. Thai he will sow the house of Is; 
ruel and the house of Judah with the seed of men; 
and that " hice as he had watched over them, 
to pluck up, and lo break down, to throw down, 
and lo destroy and alflict ; so he will watch over 
them to build' and plant, Tiiat all (his shall be. 
when tlie new covenant is made with the house 
of Israel and the house of Judah. not according 
to the covenant that he made with their fathers* 
Thus it b an event to take place under the last* 
the gospel dispensation ; and hence it must 
now future. 

The prophet Joel, when foretelling the last 
days, and the Millcmiium, notes this event; chap, 
iii. I. " For behold, in those days, and at that 
time, when I shall bring again tlie captivity of 
Judah and Jerusalem. I vt'ill also gather all na- 
tions, and will bring them down into the valley 
of Jehoshaphat." The battle of the great day 
of God follows; verse 9 — 17. Upon which fol- 
lows the Millennium. In this series of events, 
God "brings again the captivity of Judah aad 
Jeruaaiem." "* 

In Zcch. iii. is the same. A new prcparatorj- 
eneof jurigmeut is predicted; verse 6,7. The 
ittle of the great day follows ; verso 8. Then 
e Milleiiniiim ; verse 9. To prepare the way 
r this, the noted restoration is promised; verse 
) — IS. And the scene closes thus; verse 19, 
1. " Behold, nt that lime I will undo all that 
ifllict tliee ! and 1 will save her that halteth. and 
gather her that was driven out; and I nil] get 
me praise and fame in every land where they 
^ave been put to ^liame. At that time I will 
""iring you a^ain, even in the time that I gather 
^ou ; for I will make vou a name and a praise 
among ail the people of the earth, when I tiira 
Tiacls your captivity before your eyes, sailh the 

The prophet Hoiiea most decisively predicti 
this esciit. His first son must be called Jezreel j 
for God would soon avenge the blood of Je;!reelf 
" and I will cause to cease the house of Israel." ■ 
This house did cease ; and has been banished 
and lost to this day. The name of his daugh- 
ter, Lo-nihamah, is explained : '■ Ye arq. not 
my people; and I will not be your God." Here 
long dispersion. But he immediately 
iroceeds to predict their restoration. Chap. i. 
iO, 1 1 ; " Yet the rioinhcr of the children of Is- 
.el shall he as the sand of the sea. which cannot 
le measured nor numbered ; and it shall come 
pass that in the place, where it was said unto 
cm, Ye are not my people ; there shall it be 
id to Ihcm, Ye are the sons of the living God. 
'hen shall the children of Israel and the chil- 
:ren of Judah he gathered together, and appointt 
liems-'lvcs one hi:ad) and they shall come up 
of the land: (earth;) for Rreat shall be the 
1)^ gi' JiMrroh" Here the ten tribea vfMn i^' 

^^Bispcrsed, and a^ain restored, together witSW 
^Bfe Jewa ; and their numbers and prosperity' 
shall be immense. This prophet proceeds in 
the following chapters to predict the same event. 
See Hosea, 2d and 3d rhaptera. The account 
closes thus ; " For the children of Israel shall 
abide many days without a king, and without a 
prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an 
image, and without an ephod, and without a ter- 
aphim. Afterward shall the children of Isniel 
return and seek the Lord their Gnd, and David, 
their ki[ig; and shall fear (he Lord and hisgood- 
ueiss in the latter daj-a." Here is a description 
of the prcsciit dispersed state of Isriiel ; and a 
l>rediction of their national restoration, " in the 
latter days." 

This restoration is a great event in the prophj 
els ; and we find it in the New Testament. I'anH 
(in his epistle to the Romans, chap, si.) notefl 
their being again grafted into their own olive 
tree, as a notable event of the last days, which 
shall be the " riches of the gentiles;" yea, "life 
from the dead" to them. See also Isaiah xlix. 
1 8 — 23. One passage more I will adduce from 
the writings of Moses ; Deut. \\x. The 
long and doleful dispersion of this people had 
been predicted in the preceding chapters. Here 
their final restoration follows. "And it shall 
come to pass, when aU these things are come 
upon thee, and thou shalt call them to mind 
among all the nations whither the Lord thy God 
hath driven thee, and shalt return unto the Lord 
thy God; — that then the Lord thy God will turn 
thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, 
and will return and gather thee from all the na- 
tions whither the Lord thy God hath scattered 
thee. And the Lord thy God will bring thee 


into the land, which thy fitthcrs posscsseil, and 
filOU shalt possess it, and he will do ihee good, 
and multiply tbee above Ihv fathers." This lias 
uever yet been fulfilled, lor the Jews, return- 
ed Irom Babylon, were very far from beiag mul- 
tiplied in their laud abovr their fathers. Thii 
remains ^till to be accomplished. 

Thus the prophetic Vritinga do charly decide, 
that both Israel and the Jews shall, in the last 
days, liefore the Millennium, he literally restor- 
ed to their own land of Palestine ; and be con- 
Verted to the Chrislian faith. 

4. To givr a mystical import to all these 
prophecies, and say they will be fulfilled only in 
the con-Dtrsion of these ancient people of God to 
Christianity; is to take a most unwarrantable 
liberty with the word of God. Some have made 
such pretence ; but tar be it from me to follow 
them ! Why not as well apply a mystical sense 
to every prediction of future events ? To lh« 
predictions of the battle of that great day ; of the 
Millennium ; of the resurrection of the bodies of 
men ; of the final judgment ; of the conflagra- 
tion of this world ; of heaven ; and of hell ? 
Why may not those as well all be fulfilled, not 
by a literal, but by some mystical accomplish- 
ment ? Is not tliLs to add and to diminish, with a 
witness ? Paul says, (2 Tim. ii. 16,) " But shun 
profane and vain babhhngs ; for they will in- 
crease unto more ungodliness, and their words 
will eat as doth a canker; of whom is Hymeneal 
and Philctus; who concerning the truth have 
erred, saying, that the resurrection is past alrea- 
dy; and overthrow the faith of some." What 
was the Uberty taken hv those arch heretics 7 
Ko doubt it was this ; applying to the predictions 
•f a reiorrection of tb« bodies of men from the 

pare, a mystical resurrection of the sonl from 
the death of sin. But the predictions of the rea- 
urreclion are far less numerous, and are not 
more express, than are the preiiiclions of the 
restoration of the Jews and Israel to their own 

In various of the most remarkable of these 
predictions, we find it distinctly ascertained that 
the Jews sliall be converted ; shall have a r\cvr 
heart given them; shall have their hearts cir- 
cumcised to fear the Lord. And lie^ide this, it 
is said that people shall (as a distinct nation,) be 
restored to the land of their fathers, and shall 
dwell in temporal prosperity there throu^;h all 
following ages, and be more numerous than ever 
were their fathers. To say then, that all those 
predictions of such a restoration to Palestine, are 
to be accomplished only in the bringing of that 
people (in their dispersed state.) to embrace the 
Messiah ; is to take a most unwarrantable liber- 
ty with the word of God ! Look at one passage ; 
Ezekiel, 36th, 37th, 38th, and 39th chapters. 
Are the new heart ithe heart of flesh,) there 
promised, and God's gathering them out of all 
lands into their own land, which had so long laiu 
waste, one and tht seme, event? What can such 
expositors do with the predictions of Gog and hii 
bands, gathered against tliem, and falling upon 
the mountains of Israel ? Are these (and all the 
predictions in Joel, Zechariah, and other proph- 
ets, of the gathering of all nations to Jerusalem,) 
to be explained away, so that no " gathering of 
the nations and assembling of the Idngdoms,'* 
must be expected ? It must be a dangerous expe- 
dient to explain away the clear and express sen- 
timents of revelation. The old and best exposi- 
tors gea«rally have beheved iu a literal restora- 

6S • 

tion of Judah and Israel, And no material ob- 
jections can be raised against it, which might not 
in its principle, operate as forcibly against all 
predicted future events. 

5. That the Hebrews are to have a literal res- 
toration, appears from the fact, that the threat- 
enings that God would cast them off, had their 
fuliilment in & literal rejection of them from the 
promised land. The promises of their restora- 
tion appear to be an exact counterpart of this ; 
and hence must have their effect in restoring 
them again to Palestine. If such promises did 
not design to restore them again to the land of 
their fathers ; why should the threatenings of 
their rejection of God, be designed to have their 
effect in expelling them literally from the land 
of promise ? Why should one of them receive a 
literal, and the other a mystical construction ? 
No account can be given of this. If there is no 
benefit in restoring them to Palestine ; why was 
there any calamity in expelling them from Pales- 
tine ? Why did not God let them continue there, 
though he withdrew his spirit and grace from 
them ? But if, over and above this, they must be 
expelled from the land of promise ; then surely 
their promised restoration must (over and above 
giving them the heart of flesh) bring them back 
to the Canaan, which was given to them for an 
everlasting j^pssession. 




The present state of the Jews is so well un- 
ierstood in the Christian and literary world, that 
very little will here be said on this part of the 
subject. While a more particular attention will 
be paid to the present state of the ten tribes of 

The whole present population of the Jews has 
been calculated at tive millions. But the prob- 
ability is, (as has been thought by good judges,) 
that they are far more numerous. One noted 
character says, that in Poland and part of Tur- 
key, tliere are at least three milHons of this peo- 
ple ; and that among them generally, there is an 
unusual spirit of enquiry relative to Christianity. 
Mr. Noah says, that in the States of Barbary, 
their number exceeds seven hundred thousand. 
Their population in Persia, China, India, and 
Tartary, is stated (in a report of the London So- 
ciety for the conversion of the Jews ) to be more 
than throe hundred tbousaaid. In Wcetcrn Asia 

ire numerous; and Ihcj are found in 
^most every laiid. 

iiirope (his remarkable people Imve 
■een GJiigiilariy depressed, and in ages past, 
lade a taunt, reproach, and by-word, trodden 
towa, scattered and pealed; one would hope 
th»t quarter of the world would feel themselvei 
•bliptcd to be siugnlarly active in-bringin§ about 
their restoration. Considerable has been mider- 
t&ken to meliorate their conditioQ, and prepare 
the way for their restoration. 

It is fourteen yeai-s since a society was formed 
in Loadon to aid the Christian! nation of this peo- 
jBle. A chapel has been erected by this society 
Tor their benefit. Tlie New Testament they 
lave caused to be translated into the Hebrew 
Hngiiage; also many tracts written in Hcbrcv. 
|T['liese tracts and Testaments have been liberal- 
lly dislribi' ;d among the Jews, and heen read 
^j multitudes of tliem with no small attention. 
Missionaries have been sent among tliem ; — 
ichools opened, and various means used. A 
leminary was opened in 1832 for the instruction 
*&f the youth of this people. Ft»iir students of 
the seed of Abraham entered it ; one of them, 
the Celebrated Mr. Wollf, a Jewish convert and 
missionary, la various parts of the United 
Kingdoms, ansiljipry aucieties have been formed; 
and the amount of monies received iii 18S2, was 
upwards of IO,G93^ sterlina;, (betwiien 40 and 
{50,000.) In the schools of the society are be- 
tween seventy and eii^hiy children of the Jews. 
In 1B22 there were distributed, 2,459 Hebrew 
Testaments ; 892 German Jewish do. ; 2,fi97 
Polish Judea do.; GOO Hebrew Psnllers; 42.410 
Hebrew Tracts ; 30.000 E'l^iish do. f.>r tlie Jews; 
I9,30lJ Hebrew card=. The prophets are about 

to be printed in Hebrew, on sfercolype plate! 
for the beoefit of the Jews. Places of depi 
of bookt for the Jews are established extetisive- 
ly in the four quarters of the world. 

Other and stuular societies hi favour of th( 
.lews are becoming numerous. Only eeveri 
will be given in detail. One has been formei 
in Berlin under the sanction of his Prussian ma- 
jtsly. This society in an address to the public^, 
observes ; •' Pious Christians in Geimany seem 
Iherui^elves almost excluded from the work of 
rofiverdng the hcitthen ; to whom sea-lkring na- 
tions only have an immediate access. May they 
be of good cheer in turning their eyes to tho 
millior.s of the ancient people of God, who liv< 
among them, or in their vicinity. There ' 
tion j>iovided with Boeilective means now tobegii 
the wurk of their conversion, as protestant Gel 
many. For this country the most glorious harvei 
Beeuis to be in reserve. Letustheuclw 
from the blame of leaving to perish these mill- 
ions, living among us. or near our gates, without 
having ever made any well regulated attempt to 
lead them to that cross, upon which their fathers 
crucified the Messiah. This tield is our own, 
and only requires labourers. According to our 
best information of its slate, we have no doubt 
but tlie foil will readily receive the seed of the 
divine word." 'j'he hifuniialions received from 
Polaiid too, arc interesting. The Jews there 
seem to be convinced that some imporlaiit change., 
in their condition is preparing ; and tliey scei 
ready to co-opcrale iu the means of such 
change. Count Von der Recke, near Weslphi 
li:!, has established near DasseUdorf, 
for converted Jews. And numerous societiL 
htve been formed in Eoropeaud America, to] 

of I 



ill- I 

is great object. The American Melio 
ing Society, tvitli its auxiliaries, might be noted 
in detail ; but they are well known. The his- 
tory of the Palestine mission also ; the noted 
I agency of Mr. Frcy, and the mission of Mr. 
Woltl", the Jewish missionary to Palestine ; also 
the remarkable conversion of many of the Jews ; 
but tliis would exceed my designed limits ; and 
these thiii^ are well known to the Christian 
My present object is rather to attend to the 
present state of the ten tribes of Israel. This 
liranch of the Hebrew family have long been 
" outcasts" out of sight ; or unknown aa He- 
brews. The questions arise, are tliey in exist- 
ence, as a distinct people ? If so, who, or where 
are they I These are queries of great numient,at 
this period, when the time of their restomlion U 
. drawing near. These queries may receive an 

^^^^_ answer in the following remarks : 
^^^^H I . It has bceu clearly ascertained in the pre- 
^^^^B ceding chapter, that the ten tribes, as the Israel 
^^^^fof God. are in the last days to he rtco-ccred, and 
^^^^ restored with the Jews, 1 he valley of dry bones, 
and tlie two sticks becoming one in the prophet'i 
hand, have been seen clenrly lo ascertain this : 
See Ezek. xxsix. as wi.ll as the many otlier 
fcjiassages noted in that chapter. But as Ihia fact 
lis essential to our iiit|uiring after tlie ten tnbei 
(iVfitb confidence of their existence ; I shall here 
^ote several additional predictions of tlie event, 

n the prophets ; and tiolc 6i 

i? passages, 

ivhich distinguish between the disperstd state of 
the Jewa, and the outcast slate of the teutnlyis j 
^hich distinction will aiiord some liglii iaouf 

1 the restoratioD of the Hebrews is pre- 
iii Isiuati'xi. ihnlGad mil in llie last dajG 
iifet up ail ensigU'fqi- tlie na lions ) it is to -asseui- 
l>le tlie outcasts of Isniel ; and gallif r togetlier 
the dispersed of Judah from the luur corjiera of , 
theearth." Mark the di§liiictioii; tlie Ji 
" dhptmed ;" scatteied over the ualioiis a 
as Ihej- have loiiK^eeu known to flB; but Isia) 
are "'>«/<;Oatf" Bust out from the nations; 
society; from the social wurld; rrom the knowl- 
edge of men, as being Ili^btews. This disliiiC- 
lion is repealeilly found in the prophets. The 
. dispersed stale of the Jews, as Jews, is a most 
nolniilc idea in the projihelic scriptures. But of 
krael, the following Iaii(;^ua^e is used ; as Isaiiih 
\vi,B ; " The I^ord God who galhcreth the w/l- 
easl» of Israel, saith." i:c. Accordingly, when 
Israel are recovered, and united with the Jews 
»t last; the Jews express their at'toiiisbment, 8i>d 
inquire where tha/ had been? Thej had utterly 
lost them, as is the fnct. See Inaiah xhs. 18— 
22, The Jews here, while " ttmovhig to and 
fru" through the natrons, in their dispersed slate, 
had been **((/( a/onr," i.e. of Ihe ten tribes. 
latter being now restored to the bosom ni 
mother church, the Jews inipiire, " H'lw 
hrmtghtup ih'-sc? Behold, I was It/i alone; ihli 
mhfrekad thty b'tn?'''' Here we lea m that' fl 
ten tribes hud, during the long dispersion of (L 
Jews, been utterly out of their sight and knon 
edi;c, as their brethren. Thii implies the loj' 
oal'-afl stale tif Ihf Un trull's. 

Several additional passages will be noted. 

'mw thai bolh the branches of that aurionr pM 

lare to be restored. In Isaiah xi. after q 

tnise (ha( the dispersed Jews, and outeaH \ 

I shall be restored j the prophet adds, vd 


IS; •' The envy also or Epbraim shall depart; 
£phraim slialJ not eovy Juduli, and Judali shall 
not vex Ephraim." Here the mutual jculous- 
ies between the two branches of the house of Is- 
rael, which before the expiilaion of (he ten IrJhes 
kept them in almost perpetual war, shall never 
again be revived ; which passage assures us of 
the restoration of Israel as Israel. 

In Jer. iji. those two branches are distiii^isb- 
ed by '■'■ backsliding Isriul, and her Ireackerotis 
sister Judah.^^ Israel was already put away for 
her spintual adull cries,. (having then been reject- 
ed for nearly one hundred years.) But the sunie 
backsliding Israel is there again recovered iu Ihe 
last days. God calls after them ; ^'■Relvi-n, tkou 
backsliding Isriul ; fur I am married vnto you, 
sailh the Lord. And I viill lake yav, one of a 
cily and two of a family, and will bring i/ou to 
Zion." " In those days the house of Judah shall 
valk with the house of Israel ; and they shall 
come together out of the land of the north, to Ihe 
land that I have given lo your fathers." This 
has never yet had even a partial accompliah- 
oient. Its event Is niaiiife.sliy future. 

The entail of the covenant must as surely re- 
cover Ihe ten tribes, as the Jews. Paul shows 
in Romans xl. the conGistency of the rejection of 
the Jews, with the entail of the covenant with 
Abraham. And he makes their hnal restoratioa 
in the last days, essential lo this consistency. — 
But this inspired ai^gunient as forcibly attaches 
itself to the ten tribes, to ensure their recovery, 
as to the Jews. He accordingly there says, "and 
to all Israel shall be saveil;" or both hraTiches of 
the Hebrews shall be recovered. This same 
point is most positively decided in Jereuuab, 



30th and Slst chapters, as has appeared in the 
preceding chapter. 

2. It iaevitabi)' follows, that the ten tribes of 
Israel must now have, somewhere on earth, a 
distinct existence in an otitcaul state. And we 
justly infer, that God mould, io hia holy provi- ' 
dence, provide some suitable place for their safe 
keepin;;, as his outcast tribes, thaugh long nn- 
kiiown to men as such. There i:^ jio avoiding 
this conclusion. If God will restore them at last 
as his Israel, and as having been '■OMica*(" from 
the nations of the civilized world for 2500 years; 
be surely must have provided a place for their 
safe keeping, as a distinct people, in some part 
o( the world, during that long period. Tliey 
must, during that period, have been unknown to 
the Jews as Israelites ; and consequently un- 
known to tlie world as such; or the Jews would 
not at least (on tlieir being united to them.) in- 
quire, " These, where had tbey been ?" Isaiah. ^ 
xlix. 21. 

3. We have an account of the ten tribes, aftii 
their captivity, which accords with the ideas jum 
Btnted. W« receive not the books of the Apoc- 
rypha as given by Inspiration ; but much credit 
hns been given to historical facts recorded in it ; 
as in the ware of the Maccabees, andotlierpiaceg. 
In 2 Esdras, xiii. 40, and on, we read ; " lliOH 
are the ten tribes which were carried away prilP 
oners out of their own land, in the time of OaeS,T 
the kint;, whom SalmaneKer, the king of Assyria, 
led away captive ; and he tarried them over the 
waters, and so came they into another land." 
Here is the planting them over the Euphrat^, io 
Media. The writer adds ; " B(i* they took Ibis 
counsel amonL:lhcmselves,lh:il ihey would leave 

;,Utc multitude uf the heathen, aiid^o forth into a 


farther country, where never man dwelt ; that 
they might there keep their statutes which thej 
aever kept (i. e. uniformly as they ought,) in 
their own land. There xoas a great way to gOj 
namely^ of a year and a half.^^ The writer pro- 
ceeds to speak of the name of the region being 
oalied Arsareth, or Ararat. He must allude here 
to the region to which they dliected their course 
to go this year and a half's journey. This place 
where no man dwelt, must of course have been 
unknown hy any name. But Ararat, or Arme- 
nia lay north of the place where the ten tribes 
were planted when carried from Palestine. — 
Their journey then, was to the north, or north- 
east. This writer says, "They entered into the 
Euphrates by the narrow passages of tlie river." 
He must mean, they repassed this river in its 
upper regions, or small streams, away toward 
Georgia; and hence must have taken their course 
between the Black and Caspian seas. This set 
them otf north-east of the Ararat, which he men- 
lions. Though tills chapter in Esdras be a kind 
of prophecy, in which we place not conlidence ; 
yet the allusion to facts learned by the author, 
no doubt may be correct. And this seems just 
such an event as might be expected, had God in- 
deed determined to separate them from the rest 
of the idolatrous world, and banish them hy 
themselves, in a land where no man dwelt since 
the flood. 

4. Let several suppositions now be made. 
Suppose an extensive continent had lately been 
discovered, away north-east from Media, and at 
the distance of " a year and a half's journey;" a 
place probably destitute of inhabitants, since the 
flood, till the time of the ''casting out" of Israel. 
vSuppose a people to have been lately discovered 

pfhat seqiiBFtered region, appearing as we sTiould 
Ritioiially expect tiie nation of larael to appear 
at this period, had the account given by the wri- 
tt;r ill Esilraa been a fact. Suppose them to be 
found ill tribes, with heads of tribes ; hut desti- 
tute of letters, and in a savage state. Suppose 
among theirditferent tribes the following traditioL- 
%ry fragmeutsare by credible witnesses picked up; 
^ome particulars among one region of them, and 
some among another ; while all appear evident- 
ly to be of the same family. Suppose them to 
liare escaped the polytheism of the pagan world, 
and to acknowledge one, and 6iily one God ; the 
Great Spirit, who created all things seen and un- 
seen. Suppose the name retained by many of 
them for this Great Spirit, to be Ale, the old He- 
brew name of God ; and Yohewah, whereas the 
Hebrew name for Lord was Jehovah ; also they 
call the Great First Cause, Yah ^ the Hebrew 
name Being Jah. Suppose you find most of them 
professing great reverence for this great Yohe- 
wah ; caUing him "the great beneficent supreme 
holy spirit," and the only object of worship. — 
Suppose the most intelligent of them to he elat- 
ed with the idea that Ifais God has ever been the 
head of their community^, that their fathers were 
once in covenant with him ; and the rest of the 
world were "the accursed people," as out of 
covenant with God. Suppose jou find them, on 
certain occasions, singing in rchgious dance, 
" Hallelujah," or praise to Jah ; also singing 
Yohewah, Shilii Yohewah, and making use of 
many names and phrases evidently Hebrew. — 
You find them counting their time as did ancient 
isiael, and in a maoDer difiereut horn all other 
nations. They keep a variety of religious feasts, 
w)uch much resemble those kept iu uucieiit Is- 

Vflu i'md an evening fun^t among fliem, iu 
^hich a boiie of tbe animal mvist not he broken : 
f the provision be mort' tliun one fumily can cat, 
I neighbour niusi he called in to help eat it. and 
^f ajiyof it be still lei't, it must be hurncJ before 
' the next risinf; snn. You find tliom eating bit- 
tor vegetables, to cleanse Ihemselves from sii). 
You find they never cut the hollow of Ute ibi^ 
of 8u^ animal. They inform that llieir Etthotf 
practised circumcision. Some of lliem have 
been in the habit of keeping a Jubilee. Thej 
have their places answering to the cities of re- 
fuge, in ancient Israel. In thege no blood is ever 
shed by any avenger. You lind them with their 
temples, (such as they be,) their holy of holies 
in their temple, into wliich it is death for a com- 
mon person to enter. They have their high 
priests, who officiate in their temples, and make 
their yearly atonement there in a lingular pontif- 
ical dress, which they fancy to be iu the Kkencss 
of one worn by tlieir predecessors in ancient 
limes ; with their Ivreast-plate, and various holy 
ornaments. The high priest, when addressing 
to his people what they call " ike old divine 
■ sp(cck^^ calls them " lh§ beloved and holy peo-. 

kple," and urges them to imitate their virtnouB 
ancestors; an^ tells them of their "beloved land 
flowing with milk and honey." They tell you 
that Yohewali once chose i\w\i nation from all 
the rest of mankind, to be his peculiar people. 
That a book which God gave, was once theirs ; 
and then things went welt with them. But oth- 
er people got it from them, and then they fell uo- 
der the displeasure of the Great Spirit ; but that 
they shall, at some time, regain it. They inform 
you, some of their fathers once had the spirit to 
forclel future events, and to work mtracl«9. 

I«9. fin»^ 

E f.liPj liavo their imitalion of fhe ark of (hj 
r- are deposited (heir most 
tilings! iiitu which it is dcdth for anv common 
people to look. AH thoir males musl appear at 
the ieniple at three noted feasts in a jear. Tin 
ijiform yoii of the ancient Hood ; of Ihe pvest 
Vfttion of one family in a veKSel ; of this man 
the ark sending out first a great hinl, and then 
llltle oue, to see if the waters were goni 
the great one returned no more ; but Ihe little 
one returned with a branch. They tetl yon of 
tlic confusion' of languages, once when people 
were building a great high place ; and of the 
longevity of the ancients ; that they " li\cd till 
their feet were worn out with walking, and their 
throats with eating." 

Von find them with their traditional histoi 
that their ancient fathers once lived where pel 
pie were dreadfully wicked, and that nine tentl _ 
of their fathers took counsel and left that wicked 
place, being led by the Great Spirit into this 
country ; that they came through a region where 
it was always winter, snow and frozen. That 
they came t& a great water, and their way hith- 
er was thus obstructed, till God dried np that 
water ; (probably it froze between the islands io 
Becring's Straits.) You find them keeping " 
annual feast, at the time their ears of corn 
come (it for use; and none of their com is eati 
till a part of it is brought to this feast, and 
tain religious ceremonies performed. Vou find 
them keeping an annual feast, in which twelve 
men must cut twelve saplin pole:^, to make a 
booth. Here (on an altar made of tivelve 
■tones, on which no tool may pass,) they must 
■acrifiec. You find them with the ctislom of 
ig and anointing their dead. And wbl 



I deep QiQiction. laying their liand oa their 
moulli, and their mouth iu the du^t. 

Soppoae you 'should dnd thin^ like these 
aTTioris; such a people, without booiis or letters, 
bill wiiolly ill a sava;^e state, iu a rei^ion of the 
world lately discovered away in Uie direction, 

led by tlie aforeiioteJ writer in the Apocrypha; 

i hayin;; been ever secluded from the knowl- 

je of the civilized world ; , would you hesitate 
ft say you had found the ten tribes' of Israel? 
iaud uifrtGod seat them to that E&iucstered re- 
ft^on of the eaith, to keep them there a distinet 
people, during an "outcast" state of at least 
2500 years ? Would you. not say, we have just 
such kimi of evidence, as must at last bring that 
people to light among the nations? And would 
you not say, here is much more evidence of this 
kind, of their being the people of Israel, than 
could rationally have been expected, after the 
lapse of 2S0O years in a savage state ? Methinka 
I hear every person whisper his full assent, that 
Upon the suppositions made, we have found the 
most essential pile of the prophet Ezekiel's val- 
ley of dry bones! 

5. Those things are more than mere supposi- 
tion. It is believed they are capable of being 
ascertained as facts, with substantial evidence. 
Good authorities from men, who have been eye 
and ear witnesses, assure us that these things are 
• ikcta. But you enquire, where or who are the 
people thus described ? They arc the aborigines 
of our own conlintnl ! Their place, their lan- 
guage, their traditions, amount to all that has 
been hinted. These evidences are not all found 
among any one tribe of Indians. Nor may all 
the Indians in any tribe, where various of these 
evidences are found, be able to exhibit them. It' 


is enough, if what they call their beloved aged 
men, in one tribe, have clearly exhibited some of 
thenn ; and others exhibited others of them ; and 
if among their various ti-ibes, the whole have 
been, by various of their beloved or wise men, 
exhibited. This^ it is stated, has been the fact. 
Men have been gradually perceiving this evi- 
dence for more than half a century ; and new 
light has bc?n, from time to time, shed on the 
subject, as will appear. 

The North American Reviewers, in review- 
ing a sermon of Doct. Jarvis, on this subject, dq- 
livered before the New- York Historical Society, 
(in which he attempts to adduce much evidence 
to show that the natives of this continent are the 
tribes of Israel) remark thus ; " The history and 
character of the Indian tribes of North America, 
which have for some time been a subject of no 
inconsiderable curiosity and interest with the 
learned in Europe, have not till lately attracted 
much notice among ourselves. But as the 
Indian nations are jiow fast vanishing, and the in- 
dividuals of them come less frequently under our 
ol)servation ; we also, as well as our European 
brethren, arc beginning to take a more lively in- 
terest than e^er, in the study of their character 
and history." 

In the course of their remarks they add ; "To 
the testimonies here adduced by Doctor Jarvis, 
(i. e. that the Indians are the ten tribes of Israel) 
miiih^ have been added several of our New-Eng- 
land historians, from the first settlement of the 
country." Some thoy proceed to mention; and 
then add, that tiie lie v. ?flcssrs. Samuel Sewall, 
fellow of H:irvar.? CoUe^c. a- id Samuel Wiilard, 
vice j)vesi ic'^it of the ^jpuo. u( jo oro|)i:iio?), that 
" ilic Indians are the ucsccuJ.i :ls ■>: Israel. "-^— 

Roct. JarviB notes thta as an hypothesis, which 
i beeu a favourite tO|iic with Euro|iean writ- 
i ; aatl as a sub.ect, to which it is hoped the 
Americans may be suid lo be waking up at last. 
''' Manasses Ben Israel, in a work, entitled "The 
lope of Israel," has written to ahow that the 
j4merican Indians are the ten tribes of Israel. 
But as we have access to hia aiil^iors, we may 
consult them for ourselves. The main pillar of 
i eridence is .lames Adair, Est], Mr. Ada*r 
raa 9 mnn of established character, as appears 
fom good authority. He lived a trader am(5iig 
; Indiafis, in the sonth of North America, for 
forty years. He left them and returned to Eng- 
land in 1774, and there published his '• History 
of the American Indians ;" and his reasons for 
being persuaded that they are tlie ten tribes of 
Israel. Remarking on their descent and origin, 
he CO tic hide a thus; "From the most accurate 
__observation3 1 could make, in the long time I 
jfraded amoii|^tlie Indian Americans. 1 was forc- 

belfeve them lineally descended from the 
braelites. Had the nine tribes and a half of la-' 
iael, th;4t were carried off by Shalmanezer, and 
tattled in Media, continued there !on^. it ia Very 
irobable by intermarrying with the natives, ana 

1 their nali^ral lickleness, aqd proiiencss to 
itry, and alto from the force of example ; 

t they would have adopted and buwed before 
e gods of Media and A*syria ; nnd would have 
J them along with them. But there is not 
I trace of this idolatry atnonj^ the Indians." iVIr. 
" lir gives his opinion, thrit the ten tribes, sooa 
ifter their baiiiahment from the land of Israel, 
left 'Vl'jiia. aud reached this coatinent from the 
northwest, probHblv before the carrying awa^f 
of the Jews to Babyluu. 


A summary will be given of the afpiments of 
Mr- Adair, and of a huuiber of other wrilers on 
this subject. As the tvidence given by Mr. 
Adair app6ars Id eodic respects the most momen* 
tou^ and conclusive, 1 shall adduce a testimonial 
in his behalf. In tlie " Slar in tbe West," jnr' 
lishcd by the Hon. Elias Boudinot,' LL. 1 
upon this subject, that venerable man saj 
" The writer of these sheets has made a fr 
ude of Mr. Adair's Iiistory of the IndiaiiSi 
renders it necessary that something futihe 
should be said of him. Sometime about the vei 
1774, Mr. Adair came to Elizabetbto^vn, (where 
the writer lived,) with his manuscript, an J 
ed to Mr. Livingstone, (afterward {;ovci 
New-Jersey — a correct scholar,) renuesliti^ bin 
to correct his manuscript. lie brought ampk 
recommendations, and gave a good account o' 
himself. Our political troubles with Crtai Pii 
tain then incrcanng. (it being the year before th) 
commencement ot the revolutionary war,) 1 
AdaJr, who was on his way to Great Brilfiin, ' 
advised not to risk being detained from liis r 
age, till the work could be critically examiiiedJJ 
but to set 00" as soon as possible. He Bccordingf 
ly took his passage in the first vtsjcl bound I 
England. As soon as the war wr-s over, (Md 
Boudinot adds of himself,) the- writer sent I 
London to obtain a copy of this work. Afl^ 
readinj^ it with care, he iitrictly examined i 
tleman, then a member with him in congnsi 
and of excellent charat'ter, who had acted us < 
at;eiit among the Indians to the southward, d 
in;4 the war, relative to the points of fact sta 
hj Mr. Adair, without leltiiii; bim kiiow the 
si^u, aitd frOmhiui found all the leading factb mc^ 



tioned in Mr. Adair's history, fully confirmed 
from his own pcrssoiial knowicd-e." 

Here are the evidences of two great and good 
men most articss^ly uniting in the leading facts 
slated by Mr, Adair. Tlie character of Mr, 
Boudinot (who was for some time President of 
the American Bibie Society,) is well known. — 
He was satisfied with the truth of Mr. Adair's 
history, and tliat the natives of our land are the 
Hebrews, the (en tribes. And lie hence published 
his " Star in tlie West" on this sub.ect ; which 
is most worthy of the perusal of ail men. 

From various authors and travellers, among 
the Indians, the fact that the American Indians 
aie the ten tribes of Israel, will be attempted to 
he proved by the following ai'j^uments : 

1. The American nati\es have one orii^in. 

2. Tlieir language appears to have been He- 

3. They have had their imitation of the ark 
of the in ancieut Israel. 

4. They have been in the practice of circum- 

5. They have acknowledged one and only one 

6. Their variety of traditions, historical and 
religioiw, go to evince that they are the ten 
tribes of Israel. 

7. The celebrated Willinm Penn gives ac- 
couiits of the natives of Pennsylvania, which go 
to c'brroborate the same point. 

8» Their having a tribe, answering in various 
rc^^pects. to the tribe of Levi, sheds furthers li^ht 
on this s:ib ect. 

9. Se- cimI prophetic traits of character given 
of the Hc=)rews- do accurately apply to Uie aba* 
rigiues of Au^erica. 

10. The Tnilbns being in tribes, with tl 
beads and names of Iribca, afTords further lij 
upon this subject. 

I I . Tlieii- having an imitation of the ancient 
c'liy of refuge, evinces the truth of our subject ; 

12. Other Indian ritea, and various' other con- 
siderations, go to evince the fact, that this people 
are the ten tribes of Israel. 

1 . The American nattvcs have one origin'—- 
Their language has a variety of dialects ; but ajk- 
are believed by some good judges to be the 
* radical lan^iiai^e. Various noted authors agcei^ 
in this. Charlevoix, in his history of Canada. 
says; "The Algonquin and the Huron langua- 

f!s, (which he says are as really the same- as the 
reuch and old Normau are the,) have be- 
tween them the langua<;e of all thj savage na- 
tions we arc acquainted witli. Whoever should 
well unilcrstand both of these, mi^hc travel with- 
out an interpreter more than tifleen hundred 
leagues of country, and nnke himself undewtood 
by an hundred ditJerent natio i», ivbo have each 
their peculiar tongue ;" meaning dialect. The 
Algonquin was the dialect of the Wolf tribe, or 
the Mohc^an ; and most of the native trii)C3 of 
New-England and of Virginia. 

Doctor Jonathan Edwards, son of President 
Edwards, lived in his youtli among the hidians ^ 
as his father was a tniBsiouary among tliem, be- 
fore he was called to Princeton College ; and he 
became as familiar wicli the Mohegnii dialect, as 
with his mother tongue. He had also a good 
knowiedi;e of the Mohawk dialect. He pro- 
I ounf od the Mi^he'^ai) tlie most extensive of all 
the hidian dialectr* of North America. Hl^ namei 
twt less thaji sixteen tribes, besides the orl^^iual 


tribes of New-England, aa agreeing witli the Mo- 
licgan. Herein Ilic doctor agrees wilh the testi- 
mony of Cliarlevoix just noted. Here we find 
a cogent argument in favour of tlie Indians of 
NoHh Americft, at least &b being of one origin. 
And ui^imcnts will lie furnished that Uic Indians 
of South America are probably of the same ori- 

Doctor BoiidJnot (who for more than forlj 
yenra was of opinion that Ihe Indians are the leu 
tribes, and who sought aud obtained much evi- 
dence on this subject, assures us, tl^^the sylla- 
bles which compose the word Yohewab, (Jeho- 
vah) aiid Yah, (Jah) are the roots of a great num- 
ber of Indian words, through dilTerent tribcSi — 
They make great use of these words, and of the 
syllables which compose Ihe naineB of God; also 
which form the word Halleluiah, through their 
nations for thousands of miles; especially in 
their religious songs and dances. With bealiug 
aud an exact keeping of time, they begiu a reli- 
gious dance thus ; Hal. hal, hal ; then le, le, lej 
next lu. In, lu ; and then close yah, yah, yahj, " 
This is their traditional song of praise to the 
drcat Spirit. This, it is asserted, is sung ia 
South, as well as North America. And this au- 
thor says ; " Two Indians, who belong to far dis- 
tant nations, may without the knowledge of each 
other's language, escept from the general idiom 
of all their tribes, converse with each other, and 
make contracts without an inteipieler." Tliis 
""fcewe them to have been of one origin. 

ffPu l^ratz says, in his history of Louisiana, 
^"he nations of North America derived their 
Xtigiil from the same country, since at bottom 
[hey all have the same manners and usages, and 
die same majuier of speakiug aud thinking." It 

• • ' — 

1 • _ 

f ■ 

I _ 


6 , ■■■ -. 

h.- ■ 

t.. : 

fad travelled througli many provinccf of Amcr- 

„ sayi 

I of the India 


le, men and 

women, alUiougli there atv. such a mnltitiide of 
tribes or nations, in such diversities of climates, 
api>ear deverthelcss, Ukc the children of one fa- 
ther and mother." 

UUoa (ifl ted by Doct. Williams.) had a great 
acquaintance with the Indians of SoiUli America, 
and some parts of North America. Speaking of 
the Indians of Cape Breton, in Ihc latter, he de- 
clared them to be " the same people with the 
Indians in I'eru." " If we have seen one Amer- 
ican, (*aid he) we may be said to have seen them 
all." These remarks do not apply to all the 
people in the northern extremities of America. 
Xhe Esquimaux natives appear to be a different 
race of men. This race are found rn Labrador; 
Gieeidand, and ronud Hudson's Bay. All 
lese appear evidently the same with the Lap- 
in ders, ZcmbI a ns, Samoyeds and Tartars in the 
They probably migrated to this western 
imisphere at periods subteipient to Ihe migra- 
)n of the Indians. They, or some of them, 
light have come from the uorlh of Europe; 
frOin Korway to Iceland, then to Greenland, and 
thence to the coasts of Labrador, and farther 
west. But the consideration of those dilferent 
people, does not alFect our suhiect. 

2. Tlieir langvage appear) chnrly to Affre 
been Htbrew. In this, Doctor Edwards, Mr. 
Adair, and others were agreed. Doct. Edwards, 
having a good acquaintance with their lan- 
iiage, gave his reasons for believing it to have 
leen originally Hebrew. Both, he remarks, are 
fonnd without preposilionB, and are formed with 
prefixes and sulllxcs ; a thing probably known to 
no other language. And he shows that not onjjr 

ot onjjf . 

(be words, but the construction of phrases, 
both, have been the sfime. Their pronouns, 
well as their nouns, Doctor Edwards remaVkS'^ 
arc manifestly from the Hebrew. Mr. Adair 
conlident of the fact, that their language is He 
hrew. And their laconic, bold and coinman<t 
ing figures of speech, he notes as exactly agref 
in^ with the genius of the Hebrew laiigua^.— 
He says, that after living forty years among thert 
he obtained such knowledge of the Hebrew idi 
om of their language, that he viewed the event 
of their having for more than two millenaries, 
and without the aid of literature, preserved their 
Hebrew language so pure, to be but httle short 
of ft miracle. 

Relative to the Hebraism of their figures, Mr. 
Adftir gives the following instance, from an ad- 
dress of a captain to his warriors, going to bat- 
tle, "i know that your guns are burning in your 
hands; your tomahawks are thirsting to drink 
the blood of your enemies; yoar trusty arrow 
are impatient to be upon the wing ; and test ^ 
lay should bum your hearts any longer, I gifl 
you the cool refreshing word ; join Ike holt/ arm 
and away to cut off the devoted enemy/ ■"' 

A table of words and phrases, is furnished t 
Doct. Boudinot, from Edwards, Adair, and oM 
crs, to show how clearly the Indian lai)gitago| 
from the Hebrew. Some of these Indian worl 
are taken from one tribe, and some from anothd 
In a long savage state, destitute of all aid fro 
letters, a language must roll and change. It is 
strange that after a lapse of 2 jOO years, a single 
word should, among such a people, be preserved 
the same. Out the hand of Providence is strik- 
ingly seen io tliis, to bring tliat people to liglit. 


The following may afford a specimen of the 
evidence on this part of the subject. 









Ale, Aleim 














Ish, Ishte 







Ewch, Eve 




His wife 



This man 






Roof of a house 









To pray 






Hind part 






To blow 

- Phaubac 


Hushing wind 



•iraraU or high nwunt 






Very hot 

Heru hara or hala 

Hara hara 

Praise to the First Cause Halleluwah 


Crive me food 

Natoni boman 

Natoui bamea 

Go thy way 

Bayou boorkaa 

Boua bouak 

Good be to you 

Halea tibou 

Ye hali ettouboa 

My necklace 

Yene hali 


I am sick 

Nane guaete 

Nance heti 

Who can doubt but the above Indian words 
and phrases were from their corresponding He- 
brew ? To be otherwise, their adoption by sav- 
ages must be miraculous. And if they be from 
the Hebrew, surely these Indians must be the 
very ten tribes of Israeh 


, iDdli 

Governor Hutchinson observed, that "many ■ 
people (at the lime of the first settlement of New 
Eiigland,) pleased themselves with a coiijecIufC, 
that the Indians in Amciica, are tlic dt'scendaiits 
of the ten tribes of Israel." Something was dis- 
covered so early, which excited this pteubing sen- 
timeut. This has been noted as having been tlie 
!<cutiment of Rev. Samuel Scwall, of vice prcei- 
dent Willard, and others. Governor Hutchinson 
expresses his doubt upon the subject, on account 
of the dissimilarity of the language of the natives 
of Massachusetts, and the Hebiew. Any lan- 
guage in a savage state, must, in the course of 
2S00 years, have rolled and varied exceedingly. 
This is shown to be the case in the diU'ercnt dia- 
lects, and many new words uitruduced among 
those tribes, which are acknowledged to have 
their language radically the same. 

The following facts are enough to answer eve- 
ry objection on this ground. The Indians had 
uo written language. Hence ttie Englisli schol- 
ar could not sec the spclhng or tht; root of any 
Indian word. And the gutteral pronunciation of 
the natives was such as to make even the He- 
rew word, that might still be retained, appear 
illy a diU'erent word ; especially to those 
were looking for no Hebrew language among 
1. And llic following noted idiom of the 
'ndian language was calculated to hide the fact 
in perfect obscurity, even had it been originally 
Hebrew, viz. ; the Indian language consists of a 
luUitude of monosyllables added together. — 
Ivery pi-operty or circumstance of a thing to he 
lentioned by an Indian, must be noted by a new 
lonosyltable added to its name. Hence it was 
lat the simple word our lovm. must be express- 
by Uie following long ludiau word, .Vooiuofit- 


antammoonJcanuiionnash. Mr. Colilon, in * 
liistory of the five tiatioiis, observes, "Theyh 

fcvf radical words. But Ihcy compound (' 

words without end. The words expressive of 
things lately come to their knowledge (he sajs) 
are all compounds. Aad soinetimce one word 
among Ihem' incluiles an entire definition of the 
thing."* These tilings considered of a language 
a mons savages, 2500 years after their expulsion 
from Canaan, mnst answer every objection aris- 
ing from the fact, that the Indian language ap- 
pears very diflerent from the Hebrew. And they 
mu!-t render it littie less than miraculous (as M*r. 
Adair says it is) that afler a lapse of so long a 
period among savages, without a hook or letters, 
a word or phrase properly Hebrew should still 
be found among them. Ytl suck morris and 
pkrnseB are funnd. And many more may yet be 
found in the compounds of Indian words. I 
have just now observed, in dropping my eye on 
a Connecticut Magazine for 1803, a writer on 
the Indians in Massachusetts, in its earliest days, 
informs, that the name of the being they wor- 
shipped was Abamocko. Here, without any 
perception of the fact, he furnishes a Hebrew 
woi'd in compound. Ahba-mocko ; fatlier-mo- 
cho. Aa a tribe of Indians in the south call 
God, Abba-mim;o-ishio; Father-chief-man. In 
the latter, we have tw-j Hebrew words j Aliba, 
father, and Uh, man. Could we make proper 
allowance for Pagan pronunciation, and find how 
Ihc syllables in their words ought to be spelled, 
wc niiglit probably find many more of the Hebrew 
ruols in thi;ir language. _ 

kȣec tjm Cou 

E. Vol. III. p. 367. 

3. Th Indians heme had their imilalion of ffi 
ark of the coveitant in ancieiU Israel. DiDerenfl 
li-avcllers, and from ditrerent regione unite in 
tills. Mr. AilRir is full in his account of it. It 
is a small square box, mtide convenient to carry 
on the back. They never set it on tlie ground, 
but ou logs in low ground where stones are not 
to be had 5 and on stones where they arc to be 
found. This author gives the following account 
of it. " It is worthy of notice, (he says.) that 
they never place the ark on the ground, nor sit 
on the bare earth when they are carrying it 
against an enemy. Ou hilly ground, where 
slones are plenty, Ihcy place it on them. But in 
level laud, upon sho^t logs, alwaj"8 resting tliem- 
BcKcs (i. e, the carriers of the ark) on itie same 
materials. They have also as strong a faifh of . 
the power and holiness of their ark. as ever the 
Israelites retained of theirs. The Indian ark is 
deemed so sacred aud^ngerous to touch, cither 
by their own sauctilied warriors, or the spoiling 
enemy, that neither of them dare mcddie with it 
ou any account, it is not to be handled by anj 
except the chieftian and his waiter, under penal- 
ty of incurring great evil ; nor would Ihc most 
inveterate enem^ dare to touch it. The leader , 
virtually acts the part of a priest of war, pro 
pnre, in imitation of the Israelites ligbting i 
the divine military banner." 

Doct. Boudinot says of this ark, " It mayo 
called the ark of the covenant imitated.'* 
time of peace it is the charge of their high prieMs. 
In tlieir wars, titey make great account of it. . 
The leader (aclin^^as hit^i priest on that occa 
sinn,) and his darliji^ waiter, carry it tn d 
They deposit in the ark somt of their mt 
cccraled articles. The two carriers uf this ■ 


crcd symbol, before setting off with it for the 
war, purify themselves longer than do the rest 
of the warriors. The waiter bears their ark 
during a battle. It is strictly forbidden for any 
one, but the proper officer, to look into it. An 
enemy, if they capture it, treat it with the same 

Doctor Boudinot says, that a gentleman, who 
was at Ohio, in 1756, informed him that while 
he was there, he saw among the Indians, a stran- 
ger, who appeared very desirous to look into the 
ark of that tribe. The ark was then standing on 
a block of wood, covered with a dressed deer 
skin. A centinel was guarding it, armed with a 
bow and arrow. The centinel finding the intru- 
der pressing on, to look mto the ark, drew his 
arrow at his head, and would have dropped him 
on the spot ; but the stranger perceiving his dan- 
ger, fled. Who can doubt of the origin of this 
Indian custom ? And wl^can resist the evidence 
it furnishes, that here are the tribes of Israel ? 
See NumI x. 35, 36, and xiv. 44. 

4. The American Indians have practised ciV' 
cumcision* Doct. Beaty, in his journal of a visit 
to the Indians in Ohio, between fifty and sixty 
years ago, says, that " an old Indian informed 
him, that an old uncle of his, who died about the 
year 1728, related to him several customs of for- 
mer times among the Indians; and among the rest, 
that circumcision was long ago practised among 
them, but that their young men made a mock of it, 
and it: fell into disrepute and was discontinued." 
Mr. M'Kenzie informs, that in hi^ travels among 
the Indians, he was led to believe the same fiict, of 
a tribe far to the nortii-west: as stated in the 'Star 
in the West.' Doctor Bon di not asr-iurc-; the 
eastern Indians inform of its haviiig been prac- 


vised among them in times past ; but that latter- 
ly, not being able to give any account of so 
strange a rite, their young men had opposed it, 
and it was discontinued. Immanuel de Moraez, 
in his history of Brazil, says it was practised 
among the native Brazilians. What sa\age na- 
tion could ever have conceived of such a rite, 
had they not descended from Israel. 

5. The native Arnericans have acknowledged 
^ncj and only one God ^ and they have generally 
views concerning the one Great Spirit^ of ivhich 
no account can be given^ but that they derived 
them from ancient revelation in Israel. Otlier 
nations destitute of revelation, have had their 
many gods. But httle short of three hundred 
thousand gods have existed in the bewildered 
imaginations of the pagan world. E\ cry thing, 
almost, has been deihed by the heaihen. Kot 
liking to retain God in their knowledge, and pro- 
fessing themselves to be wise, they became fools ; 
and they changed the glory of the one living God, 
into images, and beasts, birds, reptiles, and creep- 
ing things. There has been the most astonishing 
incHnation in the world of to do thus. 
But here is a new world of savages, c hiefly, if not 
wholly, free from such wild idolatry. Doctor 
Boudinot (being assured by many good witness- 
es.) says of the Indians who liavc been known in 
his day ; " They were never known (whatever 
mercenary Spanish writers may have written to 
the contrary) to pay the least adoration to ima- 
ges or dead persons, to celestial luminaries^ to 
evil spirits, or to any created beings whatever.'* 
Mr. Adair says the same, and assuies that *'none 
of the numerous tribes and i;atioi;s, fn»m Hud- 
son's Bay to the Mississippi, have e> er been 
known to attempt the formatiou of any image of 

Go(K" Da Pralz was very intimnte with (he 
chief of those ItidiuDs called -' Uie Guardians of 
the Temple," near the iMississippi. He inquir- 
ed 6f them of the nature of their jvorship. The 
chief informed him that they worshipped the 
great and most perfect Spirit ; and said, " He is 
ao great and powerful, that iu comparison with 
him all others are as nothing. He made all 
things thiit we sec, and all things that we cannot 
sec." The chief went on to speak of God as 
having made little epirits, called free scrvantg, 
who always stand before the Great Spirit ready 
to do his will. That '-the air is tilled with spirits ; 
' some good, some had ; and that the bad have a 
r-'chicf who is more wiclicd than the rest." Here 
it seems is their traditional notion of good and 
^Wd angel* ; and of Beelzebub, the chief of the 
letter. This chief being asked how God made 
, replied, that " Gud kneaded some clay, 
made it into a little man, aniL hnding it was well 
fanned, he blew on his work, and the man had 
life and grew up I" Being asked of the creation 
of the wo'nan, he said, "their ancient speech J 
pa^de no mention of any ditference, only that the 
as made first." Moses' account of the 
nrmation of the woman, it seems, had been losti 
Mr. Adair is very full in this, that the Indians 
lave but oae God, the Great Yohewah, whom 
they call the tjreal, beneficent, snpreine and holy 
Spirit, who dwells above the clouds, and who 
dwells w>lh good people, and is the only ob|ect 
pi worship." So ditlerent are they from all the 
~ lolati'ons heathen upon earth. He assures that 
^■fliey hold this great divine Spirit as the immedi- 
[ Ate head of their coinumnity ; which opinion he 
f coni'cives they must have derived from the aii- 
L tiient theocracy in hracl. He assures that the 

Ini1i;in! nve infoxicaleJ with religions pride; 
and call all other people llie acciirM;il people; 
and have time out of mind been acciisloined to 
hold them in grent contempt. Their aiicc^tora 
they boasl lo have been under the imincdiate 
goveiumeiif, of Yohewiih, who was wilJi Uiem, 
and directed them by hia propiict», while the rest 
of the world were outlaws, and strangers to the 
covenant of Yohewah. The Indians thus piense 
themselves (Mr. Adair il:^sures un) witii tJie idea 
thnt God has chosen Ihem from the rest of aan- 
kmd as liis peculiar people. This, he sajs, has 
h^'en the occatiion of their hating other people; 
a. id of viewing tliemselves hiited by all men. — 
Thc^ie things dhow tbut tliejr acknowledge but 
one God. 

The Peruvians have been spoken of as pay- 
ing adoration lo Ihe sun ; and as receiving their 
race of Iticaa, as children of the sun, in their suc- 
cession of twelve monarchies. The Indiana have 
hiid much of aa apprehension (hat their one 
Great Spirit had a great aflinify to 6re. And the 
Peruvians, it seeniB, went 5o far as to embody Itia 
III the sun. Here seems a shred of mixture j 
Mie Persian idolatry, with the theocracy of 1 
rael. As the more ancient Israelites caught 
decree of tlic idolatrous distemper of Ejjypt, 
a{>pcars in their golden calf; eo the ten trib< 
tiie tiinR they resided iu.Media, and before thj 
set oD'for America, may have blended some idj 
of /rf with th«ir one God. But the veiieratn 
the Peruvians had for their Incas, as children| 

Ihe Most liish, seems hut a shred of ancient ti 

d-lion from Israel, tliat their kings were divinely 
anointed ! and is so far from being an ur^jumcnt 
a':;r;iil Uieir bf^ing of Israel, thiit it operates mth- 
er ill favour of the fact. 

Doctor Bondinot infonns of the southern In- 
dians of North Amcricu, [hat they had a n^ae 
for God, which sigiiities, "the great, beloved, ho- 
ly cause." And oiw of their iiHines of God, ie 
Mngo hhlo Mba ;—Gr(al Ckuf Father. He 
speaks of a preacher's being among the Indians 
at the south, before the American revolution, 
and beginning to inform them that Uiere i^ a God 
who created all things. Upon which they indig- 
nantly replied, "Go about your business, jou foolj 
do not we know there is a God, as well as you?" 
In then- sacred dances, these autliors assure us 
the Indians sing "Hallcluyah Yohewah; — praise 
to Jah Jehovah. When they return victorious 
from their wai^s, they sing. Vo-he-wah ; haviug 
been by tradition taught to ascribe the praise lo 

The same authors assure us, Uie Indians mak£ 
great use of the initials of the mysterious name 
of God, like the lefragranimanaton of the ancient 
Hebrews ; or the four mdical lettera which form 
the name of Jehovah ; as the Indians pronounce 
thus, Y-0-He-Wah. That like the ancient 
Hebrews, they are cautious of mentioniiig these 
together, or at once. l"!iey sing and repeal the 
syllables of this name in their sacred dances thus; 
¥o-yo, or ho-ho-he-hc-wah-wah. Mr. Adair 
upon the same, says; " After this they higin 
again; Hal-hal-!e-le-lu-Iu-yah-yah. And fre- 
- ^uently the whole train strike up, hailelu-hallelu 
folleluyah-lialleluyah." They freiiutJitly sing 
fi^enameof Shilu (Shiloh, Christ) with the -yl- - 
I lablcs of the name of God added ; thus, ■■ Shilu- 
-wah." Thus adding to tlie name of Shilu, the 
nanje of Juhoyah by its sacred syllables. Things 


like riiese have been foand among Indians of d 
fercut regioua of America. Syllables and lett^ 
of Ihe name of God have been sotransposed in d'lE 
fereiit ways; and so strange and gutteial has been 
the Indian pronunciation, that it seems it took a 
long time to perceive that these savages were by 
tradition pronouncing the names of the God of Is- 
rael. Often have people been inforaied.and smil- 
ed at the fact, that an Indian, hurt or frightened, 
usually cries out viah ! This is a part of his trac' 
tional religion ; O Jah ! or O Lord ! 

Doctor Williams upon the Indians' bcliefF 
the being of God, observes ; " They denomina) 
the deity the Great Spirit; the Great Man above; 
and seem to have some general ideas of his gov- 
ernment and providence, universal power and 
dominion. The immortality of the soul was ev- 
ery where admitted among the Indian tribes." 

The Rev. Ithamnr Hebard, formerly minister 
of this place, related tlie following : That about 
fifty years ago, a number of men were sent from 
New-England by the government of Britain into 
the region of the Mississippi, to form some treaty 
with the Indians. That while these commissi^ 
ers were there, having tarried for some timcj^ 
Indian chief came from the distance of w' 
called several moons to the westward. Haviii 
heard that white men were there, he came to ii 
quire of (hem where the Great Being dwell, who 
made all things. And being informed, through ai» 
interpreter, of the divine omnipresence; he raised 
his eyes and hands to heaven with great awe and 
ec*tjcy,and looking round, and leaping, he seem- 
ed to express the greatest, revere nee and delight. 
The head man of these commissiouers had heo" 
a profane man ; but this incident cured him, | 


that he was not heard to utter another profane 
word on this tour. This was related to Mr. He- 
bard by one Elijah Wood, who was an eye wit- 
ness of the scene, and who was afterward a 
preacher of the gospel. The son of Mr. Hebard, 
a settled minister, gives this relation. 

Let this fact of the Indians generally adhering 
to one, and only one God, be contrasted with the 
polytheism of the world of pagans, and heathen 
besides ; with the idle and ridiculous notions of 
heathen gods and goddesses ; and who can doubt 
of the true origin of the natives of our continent? 
They are fatally destitute of proper views of God 
and religion. But they have brought down by 
tradition from their remote ancestors, the notion 
of there being but one great and true God ; which 
affords a most substantial argument in favour of 
their being the ancient Israel. 

It is agreed that within about eighty years, a 
great change has been produced among the In- 
dians. They have, in this period much degene- 
rated as to their traditional religion. Their con^ 
nexions with the most degenerate part of the 
white people, trading among them ; and their 
knowledge and use of ardent spirit, have pro- 
duced the most deleterious effects. They have 
felt less zeal to maintain their own religion, such 
a? it was ; and to transmit their own traditions. 
Remarkable indeed it is, that they did so dili- 
gently propagate and transmit them, till so com- 
petent a number of good testimonies should be 
furnished to the civilized and religious world, re- 
lative to their origin. This must have been the 
great object of divine Providence in causing 
tliem .so remarkably to transmit their traditions 
&rou^b such numbers of ages. And wb&a the 

Fia answoi-ed, the cause leading to it may I 
:ed to ccage. 

i may a,Ccount for (lie degeneracy 
Inilians (ar tn the west, reported ill the jourm 
of Mr. Giddmgs, in his exploring tour. He ' 
foiTDi, " They dilFcr greatly in their ideas of 
Great Spilit ; one supposes that he dwells in a 
buniiioo, another in a wolf, another in a bear, an- 
other iu a bird, and another in a rattlesnake. On 
greut occasions, such as when they go to war, and 
when they return, (he adds) they sacrifice a dog, 
and have o dance. On these occasions they for- 
merly sacriticed a prisoner taken in the war; hut 
through the benevolent exertions of a trader 
among them, they have abandoned the practice 
of human sacrifice. There is always one who 
ofliclatea as high priest. He practices the most 
rigid abstinence. He pretends to a kind of 
inspiration or witchci-aft ; and hia directions are 

" They all believe (he adds) in future rewards 
and punishments ; but their heaven is sensual. 
They differ much in their ideas of goodness. — 
One of their chiefs told him, he did not know 
what constituted a good man ; that their wist 
men, in this, did not agree. 

" Their chiefs, and most of their warriors, have 
a warsack,which contains generally, the skin of a 
bird, which ha? a green plumage ; or some other 
object, which they imagine to have some secret 

Here we learn that those Far distant sav; . 
have (as have all the other tribes) their Or 
Spirit. " who made every thin^," though ii 
bewildered opinion he dwells in certain animalj. 
On going to war, or returning, they must sacri- 
fice ; and fur victor) obtained, must have their 

icret ■ 


nalj. 1 

iouB dance. They must hnve Ihoir higli ' 
Jriest, wiio must pr4ctice grent abstiiiCHce, autl 
^ctend to inspiration; anil liencc nin^t be ubcy- 
jd. They have brought lion-n their traditional 
pbtions of tliese things; and of fiiltirc rewfinls 
ind punishmenls. The aik of thoir warlike 
^ieftains, it seems, lins degenerated inlo a sack! 
but this (iilic ttie ark of the other tribes) must, 
Eontain their most sacred things; "green plu- 
[nagc, or some other objects which,they imngine 
'& have some secret virtue." Tlere these Indians 
iriiigh their quota of evidence, in these more 
broken traditions, of their descent from Uracl. 

These tribes in the west are more savage, epd 
know less of the old Indian traditions. Mr. Gid- 
jtings says, "As you ascend the Missouri and pro- 
ceed to the west, the nearer to the slate of na- 
ture the savages approach, and the more savage 
they appear." This may account foi- their ark's 
dey;enerating into &sack; and for their vei^ng 
nearer to idolatry in their views of the Great 
Spirit, viewing liim as imbodicd in certain ani- 

It is probable that while most of the natives of 
our land had their one Great Spirit, some of thia 
wretched people talked of their diHerent gods. 
Among the natives on Martha's Vineyard, in the 
beginning of Mayhew'a mission among them, we 
lind Mioxo, in his conversation with (he convert- 
ed native, Hiaccomes, speaking of his (Ai>/^-scr<n 
gods ; and finally concluding to throw them all 
away, to serve the one true God. We know not 
what thia insulated native could mean by his 
thirty-seven gods. But it seems evident fr^sa 
all quarters, that such were not the sentimn 
the body of the natives of America. 

the ancient natives on Long Island talked of 

pr diH'erent subordiiiate yods. Sampson Oc- 

I, the noted Indian prcacht;r, says ; ■' the In- 

'dians on Long Island imagined a^reatnmnbcruf 
gods." But he says, "llieyhad (at the same 
lime) a notion of one great and good Goil, who 
was over all the rest." Here, doubtless, was 
their tradition of the holy angels which tliey had 
become accustomed to call gods tinder Uie one 
great God. The North American Reviewers 
speak of the fact, that the natives of our land 
aeknowledged one supreme God. They inquire, 
" if Uie Indians in general have not some settled 
opinion of a Supreme Being; how hus it hap- 
pened that in all the conferences or taiks of tlie 
white people with them, they have conslantly 
spoken of the Great Spirit ; as they denominate 
the Ruler of the universe ?" 

Lewis and Clark inform us of the Mnndans. (a 
tribe far toward the Pacific) thus ; " The whole 
religion of the Mandans consists in a belieT of one 
Great Spirit presidiag over their destinice. To 
propitiate whom, every attention is lavished, and 
every personal consideration is sacrificed." One 
Mandan informed, that lately he had eight horses; 
but that he had offered them all up to the Great 
Spirit. His mode of doing it was this : he took 
them into the plains, and turned them all loose, 
committing: them to tlicGreat Spirit, he abandon- 
ed them forever. The horses, less devout than 
their master, no doubt took care of themselves. 

Heckcwclder (a venerable missionary among 
the Indians 40 years, noted in Doct. Jarvis' dis- 
course, before the New-York Historical Society, 
and wba had a great acquaintance with the wide 

f'fpread dialect of the Delaware languat;e.) says ; 
" Habitual devotion to the great First Cause, antl 


a strong feeling of gratitude for the tenefits he 
confers, is one of the prominent traits whick 
characterize the mind of the untutored Indian* 
He believes it to be his duty to adore and wor- ,* 
ship his Creator and Benefactor." 

Gookin, a writer in New-England in 1674, 
says of the natives; " generally they acknowl- 
edge one grea( Supreme doer of good." Roger 
Williams, one of the first settlers of New-Eng- 
la;i(l, says ; " He that questions whether God 
made tlic world, the Indians will teach him. I 
musi aclknowlcd^c (he adds) I have in my con- 
co'ir-c with them, received manv confirmations 
of these two great points ; — 1. that God is. 2* 
that He is a re warder of all that diligently seek 
him. If they receive any good in hunting, fish- 
ing or harvesting, they acknowledge God in it." 

Surely then, the natives of the deserts of Amer- 
ica mu«5t have been a people w^ho once knew the 
God of Israel ! They maintained for more than 
two millenaries, the tradition of Him in many 
respects correct. What possible account can be 
given of this, but that they were descendants of 
Israel, and that the God of Israel has had his mer- 
ciful eye upon them, with a view in his own time, 
to bring them to light and effect tlieir restora- 
tion ? 

6. Their variety of traditions^ historical and 
religious^ go to evince that they are the ten tribes 
of Israel, Being destitute of books and letters, 
the Indians have transmitted their traditions in 
the following manner. Their most sedate and 
promising young men are some of them selected 
by what they call their beloved men, or wise 
men, who in their turn had been thus selected. 
To these they deliver their traditions, which art 

clarefully retained. These are instead of histor^; 
ic pages and religious books. 

Some of these Indian traditions, as furnished 
from good authorities, shalJ be given. Different 
writers agree that the natives have their historic 
traditions of the reason and manner of their fa- 
thers coming into this country, which agree with 
the account given in Esdras, of their leaving the 
la!id of Media, and going to a land to the north- 
east, to the distance of a year and a half's jour- 
ney. M'Kenzie gives the following account of 
the Chepewyan Indians, far to the north-west. 
He says, " They have also a tradition among 
them, that they originally came from another 
country, inhabited by very wicked people, and 
had traversed a great lake, which was in one 
place, narrow, shallow, and full of islands, where 
they had suffered great misery ; it being always 
winter, with ice, and deep snows. At the Cop- 
per Mine River, where they made the tirst land, 
the ground was covered with copper, over which 
a body of earth has since been collected to the 
depth of a man's height." Doctor Boudinot 
speaks of this tradition among the Indians. — - 
Some of them call that obstructing water a river^ 
and some a lake. Some' give account of their 
gettintj; over it ; others not. What a striking 
description is here found of the passing of the 
natives of this continent, over from the north- 
east of Asia, to the north-west of America, at 
Eeering's Straits. These Straits, all agree, are 
less than forty miles wide, at this period ; and 
no doubt they have been contii.uaJly widening. 
Doctor Williaujs, in his history of Vermont, says 
they are but ei;i;hteen miles wide. Probably 
they were not half that width 2600 years a{;o. 
And they were full of islands, the Indian tradi* 

Vtson aasureft us. l^IanT of those islands may liavi 
beeu 'frashed away ; as the Indian tradilion says, 
*'lhe sea is eating them up;" as in Dr* Bondinot. 
Other tribes assure us, that their remote fa- 
thers, on their way to this country, " came to a 
great river which they could not pass; whcnGoil 
dried up the river that they might pass over." 
Here is a traditionary rodon among the Indians, 
of God's anciently drying up rivers before their 
ancestors. Their fathers in some way got over 
Beering's Straits. And having a tradition of 
rivers being dried up before the fatlicrs, they ap" 
plied it to this event. Those straits, after Israel 
I'liatlbeeii detained for a time there, might have 
li fceeu irozeii over, in the narrows between the isl- 
ands; or they mi;;ht have beeu passed by canoes, 
orsomecrali. Tlie natives of this land, be tliey 
who they may, did in fact arrive in this conti- 
nent; and they probably must have come over 
Uiose straits. And tiiii^ mi^ht have been done 
I, t|/ Israel, as woM as by any other people. 
jLf Relative to their tradilion of coming wher^ 
.Was abunda'ice of copper ; it is a /"cl, that al^ 
or near Beer'.ng's Straiis, there is a place called 
Copper Maud, from the vast quantities of thta 
metal there found, ib Grieve'a history we ar6 
, uiformed that copper there covers the shore ia 
gj^undance ; so that ships mi^ht ca<4ily be loaded 
Milh it. The Ga^eteer speaks of this, and that 
Fro attempt was mi»de in 1770 to obtain this cop- 
" per, but that the ice even in Jaly, was so abun* 
dant, and other dilBcultics such, that the object 
was relinpiishcd, Hore, then, those natives 
n^iJe their way to this land j and brouysht dowft 
Life knowledge of this event in their tradition. 
I Doctor Bouduiol ^ive§ it as from good author- 
Lily, that the Indians have a tradilion *^ that tltt. 


book which the white people have, was cnce 
theirs. That while tbev had this book, tliiuLS 
went well with them; they prospered exceed- 
ingly ; but that other people got it from them ; 
that the Indians lost their credit ; ofiended the 
Great Spirit, and suffered exccedinjily from the 
neighboring nations ; and that the Great Spirit 
then took pity on them, and directed them to 
this country." There can be no doubt but God 
did, by his special providence, direct them to 
some sequestered region of tlie world, for the 
reasons which have been already giien.* 

* We have a prciliction relative to the ten trbe*, vh'ch 
fully accords with the things exhibit e<3 of th':m- hw' tA »Ii« 
Dative? of our land. In Amos viii. 11, 12, i*e read •• h*-U*t\t\ 
the day? come, saith the Lord God, that I w.U -en-:! a ihrmue 
in the laud^ not a famine of bread, nor a thirtt for watrr, hut 
of hearing; the words of the Lonl. Aud tli'-y '.!»rdl wander 
from sea to sea, and from the north even 'jnlo the east ; they 
shall run to and fro, to seek the word ot the L'/rd, and shall 
not find it." 'Jhis jTophocy did relate to the len trib'.-?. — 
Amos was a prophet to them : he lived not lon^ before iheir 
expulsion, from which they have never yet rctume/A. lie in 
the context predicted this expuli^iou, a«f then jm-t at hand. — 
See V. 1.% 14. The famine here predirr'.e*], wa^ to be luifid- 
ed while they were in tlieir outca&t fctate. '1 liij is clearly ev- 
ident from the whole connection. 

The prediction impli'^f, tley should know they had be^^n 
bles-#»d with the word of G'xJ, but had wickedly io^t it ; as 
& iiian in a fammc knows he ha^ had bread or f'^d, but now 
ha> It not. It implies, they fhall feci something what they 
ha"? Io?t, and shall wander. Ti»ey shall rove fn»m sea to j' a; 
frrm the imrth even to the 6ast. They shall set off' a north 
c -.r^e, and th'^iice east ; or be lei to wander in a norfh-^ at 
d.«- ct.oi as farajb they cun'Nv'Mnl.-r; from the Medilerranr-Hn, 
wli^nce they set out, to the extr^mest sea in the oppohite di- 
r-' tion north-east ; to tlie Frozen Oc»raji; over its strait*', \o 
the Pacific; and to the Allaniic. They shall run U^ and iro, over 
a:l the vast regione, the dreary wild?, which I e befwcn Iho.^e 
eiiremo seas. They shall retain some jjc ncral correct id'-a 
oi" (fod ; but shall find they have b><»t his word. T hisr they 
shall not regain, tdl their long famine shall close in the last 
ttay3. How exactly does tiiis prophecy accord with the ao 


M^Kcnzie adds the following accounts of the 
Chepewyan nation : '' They believe also that in 
ancient times, their ancestors lived till their feet 
were worn out with walkinj^, and their throats 
with eating. They describe a deluge, when the 
waters spread over the whole earth, except the 
highest mountains ; on the tops of which they 
preserved themselves." This tradition of the 
longevity of the ancients, aiid of the flood, must 
have been from the word of God in ancient Is- 

Abbe Clavigero assures us, that the natives of 
Mexico had the tradition, that " there once was 
a great deluge ; and Tepzi, in order to save him- 
self from being drowned, embarked in a ship, 

•ouat aoted in Eslras, and with the Indian tradition, -which 
meets it ; of thoir fathers being led iuto this country ! They 
have indv'^.Ld wandered north-east, and from north to east, and 
south ; from sea to sen, and from the riv^r to th:' ends of the 
earth. Tliey have r ui to and fro in a famine of the word; 
relajning some general view of God, and of ih'ur ancient 
blcssniijs under him. But their famine and ravage state have 
still continued. From their savage high pri'^i^ts they Lave 
sought the word of the Lord, and from their vague tradl'tioiis; 
but they have not f< und it. 

But the following chapter in Amos, engages they shall find 
again the holy oracles — v. 13 — 15. " Behold, the days come, 
salthlhe Lord, that the ploughman ?hall ov^riake the reaper, 
and the treadcr of grapes him that so'.viH'i seed; and tlie 
mountains shall drop sweet wine ; and all tiie hills «hall molt. 
And I will bring again the caotjvity of my people I«.ni I ; and 
they shall build the waste cities and uihabit thoni, and they 
shall plant vineyards and drink the wine ihoreof ; thoy "hall 
also make gardens and eat the fruit of t'lcyfi. And I will 
plant them upon their land ; and they shall uo m.>re l^e pull- 
ed up out of their land, whic'i I have given liiom, saith tlie 
Lord thy God." Here arjthe ra.)id scenes, the malting mis- 
sionary events, of our day. Mere is the succeeituig ret ov'^ry 
of the tribes of Israel. Here is the ilantiug ot ll.cin m their 
own land, and their pennan^nt residence l); t*^, io tJ»o ond of 
the world. Never has this restoration hvide\en a primary 


with his wife and children, and many animals,- 
Tirit aa the waters abated, lit: sent oul n tiir^ 
which reniiuiied eating dead bodies. He the^ 
sent aut a little bird, which returued with a snm" 

Doctor Beatty says, that an Indian in Ohio 
formed, that one of their traditions was, '* Once' 
the waters had ovcrdoweJ all Uic land, audj 
drowned all people then living, except a fetfj 
who made a ^at canoe and were saved." 

This Indian added, to Doctor Beatty, that " 
loni^ time ago, the people went to build a hi;^ 
place ; that while Iliey were building, they lost 
their iangiia-je, and could not understand each 

Doctor Boudinot assnrea us that two ministers 
of his acquaintance informed him, that they 
in^ among the Indians away toward the Miasi 
sipjii, the Indians there (who never before saw- 
white man,) informed him, that one of their tn 
ditions was, — a great while ago they had a com- 
mon father, who bad the other people under him, 
That he had twelve sons by whom he adminiS' 
tcred his government; but tiie sons beliaviLg il|i ~ 
they lost this government over the other peopli 
This the two mimslers conceived to he a pi '' 
evident ti'uditiunary notion concerning Jacob ai 
his twelve sons. 

Various traditions of the Indians strikingly de- 
note tlieir Ifebrew eiitractiou. Doctor Beiitly 
(mentioned by Mr. Boudinot) informs of tlieir, called the hunter's feast ; answering, he 
thinks, tu the I'cntccust iu ancient Urael. lie 
describe* it as follows ; .^ 

Tiiey choose twelve men, who provide twclrt 
deer. Each of the twelve men ctti« qliapliii 
ttuwe they form a tent, covciud with blaukell 


They (hen choose twelve stones for an altar of 
sacrifice. Some tribes, he observes, choose but 
ten men, ten poles and ten stones. Here seems 
an evident allusion to the twelve tribes ; and also 
to some idea of the ten separate tribes of Israel. 
Upon the stones of their altar, they sullercd no 
tool to pass. No tool might pass upon a certain 
altar in Israel. The middle joint of the thigh of 
their game. Doctor Beatty informs, the Indians 
refuse to eat. Thus did ancient IsraeK after the 
angel had touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh in 
the sinew that shrank : Gen. xxxii. 2o, 31, 32. 
'' In short, (says Doctor Beatty.) I was astonish- 
ed to find so many of the Jewish customs ]) re- 
vailing among them ; and began to conclude 
there was some aflinity between them and the 

Col. Smith, in his history of New- Jersey, says 
of another region of Indians, " They never eat 
of the hollow of the thigh of any thing they kill." 
Charlevoix speaking of Indians still further to 
the north, says, he met with peopje who could 
not help thinking that the Indians were descend- 
ed from the Hebrews, and found in every thing 
some affinity between them. Some things he 
states; as on certain meals, neglecting the use of 
knives ; not breaking a bone of the animal they 
eat ; never eating the part under the lower joint 
of the thigh ; but throwing it a^vay. Such are 
their traditions from their ancient fathers. Oth- 
er travellers among them speak of their j)eculiar 
evening feast, in which no bone of Ihcir sacrifice 
may be broken. No bone might be broken of the 
ancient paschal lamb in Israel, wiiich was eaten 
in the evening. 

Diflerent men who had been eve witnesses, 
speak of this, and other feasts, resembling the 

feasts in Israel ; anJ fell us relative to Ihis p 
iar evening feast, Hiat if one fiimily cannot e _ 
they have prepared, a neighbouring family is in- 
vited to partake with them ; and if any of it be 
still left, it must be burned before the next rising 
sun. None who .read the law of the passovet 
can doubt the origin of this. f 

A Christian fi-iend of mine infonmme, thatj 

some time since read in a book which he nifl 

canjiot name, the.accountof a man taken at Que- 
■bec, in Montgomery's defeat ; of his being car- 
ried far to the north-west hy Indians ; and of a 
feast which they kept, in which each had his por- 
tion in a boivl ; that he was charf^cd to be very 
careful not to injure a bone of it; that each must 
cat all his bowl ■full, or must burn what was left 
on a fire, burning in the midst for this purpose. 
The object of the fuast he know not. 

The Indians have their feasts of first ripe fruits, 
or of green corn; and will eat none of their corn 
till a part 19 thus given to God. The celebrated 
Penn, Mr. Adair, and Col. Smith, with others, 
unite in these testimonies. In these Indian feasts 
they have their sacred songs and dances; singing 
Ilallcluyah. Yohcwah. in the syllables which 
compose the words. What other nation, besides 
the Hebrews and Indians ever, in this ni&nu«(^ 
attempted the worship of Jehovah ? The authi 
of tlie '• Star in (he West" says ; " May we q 
cuppnse that these ludians formerly understoc 
the psalms and divine hymns ? Otherwise, hoif 
CHinc it to pass, (hat some of all the inhabitants 
of the extensive regions of Noi-th and South 
America hnvc. and retain, flicse very expressive 
Hebrew words, and" repeat them sodistiiictl^f 
n^sini; them after the manner of the Hebrews, ^ 
their reli^ioua acclamations ?'^ 


The Indian fbast of harvest, and annual expi- 
ation of sin, is described hy these \vriter'=5 ; and 
in a way which enforces the conviction that they 
derived them from ancient Israel. Details are 
given in the Shir in the West. My hmits will 
permit only to hint at them. , The detailed ac- 
counts are wonh j^erusing. 

An Indian dnily sacrifice is described. They 
throw a small piece of the fattest of their meat 
into the fire, before ihcy eat. /I hey draw their 
iiewly killed venison throu;^h tlie fire. The blood* 
they often b.irtu it is with them a horrid abom- 
iniition to eat the blood of their game. This was 
a Hebrew law. 

A particular or two of their feasts shall be no- 
ted. Doctor Ucatty gives an account of what 
he saw amoni!; ihc hidians norih-west of the Ohio. 
Jle says ; '• Before they make use of any of the 
first fiuils of llio i>round, twelve of their old men 
mt'Ci; v»ii«":i a deer and somo of the first fruits 
are provi.ltMl. The deer is divided into twelve 
parts ; and tlic corn beaten in a mortar, ard pre- 
pj;rc(i for u-<i l)y boiling or baking, u.uU'.r the 
ashes, and of couse unleavei.ed. This also 
is divided into twcKe parts. TJien these 
(twelve) men hold up the venision, and fruits 
and pray, \\ith their faces to the east, ack- 
nowlc.l;;;ing (as is supposed.) the bounty of 
God to them. It is then eaten. After this they 
freelv cniov the fruits of the earth. On the 
evenin;:^ of the same day, (the Doctor adds) they 
have another p iblic feast which looks like the 
passover. A great quantity of vcinson is provi- 
ded, with other thing5 dressed in their usual way, 
and distributed to all the guests ; of which they 
cat freely that evening. But that which is left is 
thrown into the fire and burned ; as none of it 

t remain till sun rise the nest day 
the venison be broken." 

Mr. Boudinot saya, ■' It is fresh in the metnory 
of the old traders, (among the Indians) as we are 
assured by those who nave long lived among 
titein, that formerly none of the numerous na- 
tions of Indians would eat, or even handle any 
part of the new hiwvcst, till some of it had bcea 
ollbred up at the yearly festival by the beloved 
man (high prieslj or those of his appointment at 
the plantation ; even though the li^ht harvei>t of 
the past year should almost have forced them to 
give their women and children of the ripening 
iruits to sustain life." Who that reads the laws 
of Moses, can doubt the origin of thvse Indian 
traditions ? 

The Hebrews were commanded to eat their 

fassover with bitter herbs: Exod. xii. 8. The 
ndiane have a notable custom of purifying them- 
selves wilh hhlar herbs and roots. Describing 
one of their fcaste, the writer says, " At the end 
of the notable dance, the old beloved women re- 
turn home to hasten the feast. In the mean time 
every one at the temple drinks plentifully of the 
Cussena, and other bitter liquids, to cleanse their 
sinful bodies, as they suppose." 

The Indians have their traditionary noti( 
clearly alluding to Ihe death of Abel, by the m\ 
dcrous hand of Cain ; as well as one alluding' 
the longevity of the ancients. ^ 
More full acrounis are given by some of these 
authors, of the Jl re hi-magus oi the Indians — their 
hij;h priest. As the high priest in Israel was in- 
ducted into ofBce Hj^ various ceremonies, and tnr 
anointing ; so is the Indian high priest by purifi- 
cation, and by anointing. When the holy gar- 
meaU are put upon him, bear's oil is poured oa 
10" ' - 

ese "I 


Lis head. And it is stated that the high priests 
have their resemhlauces of the various orna- 
ments worn by the ancient high priests ; and 
even a resemblance of the breast-plate. These 
men havx been called by the white people, igno- 
rant of Indian cnstoms, jugglers. But they are 
now ascertained by good witnesses, as a mnnifcst 
though corrupt succession of the high priesthood 
in ancient Israel. Baiiram says, those, with in- 
ferior priests and prophets, have been maintained 
in most if not all the tribes. 

The Indian high [jriest makes his yearly atone- 
ment for sin. lie appears at their temple, (such 
as it is) arrayed in his white deer skin garments, 
seeming to answer to the ancient ei)hod. Enter- 
ing on his duty, the waiter spreads a white seat 
w^ith a white dressed buckskin, close by the holi- 
est apartment of their temple; and puts on his 
white* beads offered by the people. A variety of 
curious things are described in this dress, hy Mr. 
Adair, as pretty evidently designed imitations of 
the parts of ancient pontifical dress, which it 
would exceed my limits to describe. This dress 
is left in the holy place of their temple, till the 
high priest comes to officiate again. His breast- 
plate is made of a white conch shell, through 
which two straps of otter skin pass in two perfo- 
rations ; while white buttons of buck's horn are 
superadded, as though in imitation of the pre- 
cious stones on the ancient hreast-plate. A swan 
ikin wreath adorns his head, instead of the an- 
cient plate of gold. And for the ancient tiara, 
the Archi-magus, has his tuft of white feathers. 
His holy fire he obtains by joibhing two sticks to- 
gether; and his golden b Jk and pomegranates 
are formed of the dried spurs of wild turkie^, 
strung BO as to rattle on his fine mocasias* 


Mr. A<.l:iir assures us, when the Indian Archi- 
nvi'.nis (Iiii^Ji pj'iC'st) is a(.klre>si?s>; his people. a?id 
C'l'orcin^ '* the divine speech,*' that he calls 
Ih'-n '* the beloved and holy people," according 
to ihe lan;^ua^e cosicerning ancient Israel. He 
\\v :<'.< them '^to imitate their virtuous ariccrtors," 
a. 1.1 •• llourishes upon their beloved I'dnd^JluzciuQ 
wi^'i milk and honeyj^'^ 

Mr. Adair describes the Indian feasts, and 
speaks of them as bearing a very near reseia- 
bl;ince of the stated feasts in ancient Israel. lie 
gives accounts that when the Indians are about 
to eni;age in war, they have their preparatory 
sacrifices, puritications, and fastiiu^s. lie speaks 
of their daily sacrifice, their ablutions, marriages, 
divorces, burials, mournings for the dead, sepa- 
rations of women, and punishment of various 
crimes, as being, in his opinion, manifestly of 
Hebrew origin. 

Their reckonings of iime^ Mr. Adair viewed 
as evidently Hebrew. They begin their year, 
as did Israel, at the Hrst appearance of new moou 
afler the vernal equinox. Tiiey reckon by the 
fo'ir seasons, and by the sub-divi&ions of the 

IVartram savs, the Indians believe their hi;jfh 

* mm 

priests have intimate communu)n with the world 
of spirits ; and that no great design is formed by 
the Indians without his counsel. 

The Assinipoils, far to the west, we learn in 
CiJpt. Carver's travels among the we^tern In- 
diaiis, liavc their high priest, who pretends to 
great intimacy with the Great Spirit, and to be 
al)!e to foretei futuMj events ; as is the case with 
the Killistinoes, at tne Grand Portage. Certain 
thingri he thus found among diUlueat Indiauc, 

^hich show them lo have been of Ihe sama^ 

Within about eighty years, men inform, that 
i rites of the high priesln have been more 
iglected. The InUians inform, that in 1747, 
the high priest in the Natchez, was struck dead 
by lightning, wliile using his invocalimi for rain. 
Tbcy suppose the Great Spirit to have been an- 
.■ with him for some impurity ; and with the 
T' Parting fire, and tlireatejiing voice." took him 
and forbid tbem to renew the hke at- 

Bartram gives a description of a southern In- 
dian temple. It iii a square of small buildings in 
the centre of their Indian town. The small 
bnildingsof one story cover perhaps half an acre, 
or less, according lo the strength of Ihe 
In one of these buildings they hold their 
^iiucils. A part of this building is shut up as n 
y of holies ; and it is death for any hut the 
igit priest, to enter it. Here they deposit their 
ost sacred things ; as ttie physic-pot, rattles^ 
IHpletS, eagle's tail, and pipe of peace. 
To this temple " the males (as in ancient la- 
le!) are obliged to assemble three times a year ; 
. at the feast of the first ripe fruits; at the 
sast for the success of hunting,* about the time 
of the ancient pentecost; and the great feast for 
the expiation orsins,al>out the lime of ripe Corn." 
Mo account could be given of these things, with- 
t a complicated miracle, unless the Indians 
larc descended from the tribes of Israel. 
I Mr. Boudinot informs, that "when any of their 
gloved people die, they ^den the tlmu^'ht of 
Icath by saying, "he is gone to sleep with his be- 
joved mbfira." The ancient pious Hebrew dy- 


mg, " fell asleep, and was gathered to his peo- 

The Indians, when one dies, w^ash and anoint 
the body. The Hebrews did the same. 

Some of the southern Indians hire mourners 
to bewail and magnify the merits of the dead. 
Thus did the Hebrews : Jer. ix. 17. And the 
Indians, as had the Hebrews, have their solemn 
songs on such occasions. A religious procession 
moves round the corpse, singing. Yah, (Jah.) 
IIo, is then sung by the procession. The leader 
then says He; — all follow. Then Wah is sung 
by all. Thus they sini; the syllables which com- 
pose Jah, Jehovah. The corpse is then buried 
with the face to the east. 

Lewis and Clark, in their tour to the Pacific, 
inform that they found among the natives, in 
those remote rc^zions, receptacles for the dead, 
always lying east and west; Ihc door of the tomb 
to the east, ajid the bodied in tlie tombs lyinjg 
with tlic face to Hjc eost. 

Tlie liidiaiis, often bury with the corpse a va- 
ritity of furniture ; and their best things, if the 
dead be a first character. The Hebrews did the 
same. Josej)hus informs that Hyrcanus, a Mac- 
cabee, when Jerusalem was besieged by the Syr- 
ian tyrant, and money v\as wanted, took from 
King David's sepalchi'c 3000 talents, which had 
1300 years befoie been buried with him. 

Another noted Hebrew custom the Indians 
have. Doctor Boudinot informs, that a worthy 
minister informed him, that as he was preaching 
with some Indians ; between the exercises, ti- 
dings were brought to an Indian v»?omau prercnt, 
that her son was suddenly drowficd. In deep 
di -tress she retired to a little distance, and sat 
Oil the ground. Female friends followed, and 

It IS Well ktiDffn that laying I 
moiilli. and ibe mouth in tuc du^t, 

• lat »roDn4 faer. AFtcr sitting a season in soIentQ 
■ilcjce, tlie inhuming mother put her hatid upon 
faor lauutli, aiii theu fell forward witli her face 
in the dii^. The rest all TolloweJ llic example. 
Tic men went by themselveg, and did llie sairie. 
' ' ; the liuiiil oil the 
a diilin- 
guistied Hebraism. Sec Mtcah vli. 16; Lam> 
lii. 29 ; Piov. SKs. 32. 

Thus the reader is presented with a few of the 

hUtoririil and religious traditions of the native 

Americaus ; and will judge for himself whether 

they do not cxliibit satisfactary evidence that 

B Aese natives, arc llie veri/ tribe.i of Inrael .' 

- So im^rlant an argument is furnished on this 

Bubiect, from the Indians' place, of refii^t from 

■ Ijte ttvfnger of blood, that a particular head shall 

be reserved for it, in a succeeding p:ige. 

Among what other people oti cnrth can such 

mditronal evidence be found of their being tlie 

lescendanta of the ten tribes 'i It Ss believed no 

^ther nation exhibits such evidence. Whence ' 

\i the natives of our continent, if ibcy be a(^ 

a tribes of Israel ? And where are those tril»eir 

rto be found ? They are to be found, and uomfti 

I io light, as Israelites; and tliis too, ahotit th^ 

' present period. This results fi-om the prophetici^ 

I acriptiircs, and the signs of the times. The de- 

ndsnls of Abruham arc now soon to be ret^ov- 

[ ^rcd. Where shall this branch of tliem be found 

s liaving been providentially preserved, now for 

V^OO years, if not in this se<]ue?Lered land ? The 

^tribes of Israel might have found their wny hitti' 

\^. 8S well as wiy other people. Some p<;aple 

k did tind their way hilher, and have brongitt ilxfTn 

Mil ihese Hebraisms and traditions, which it Eeeois 

^H 119 

BS Oiough could be furnishetl rrom no otherquat* 
ter, tliari IVom the commouwcallli of Uracl. 

7. The celebrated iViiliam Peitri* givts accotini 
of Ihe natives of Pennsi/hania, Khich go lo ti 
Tohorate the same point. Mr. Peiin saw the 1., 
ilians of Penusylvania, before the^ had been 4 
fcclcd with the rude treatniest of llie white pe^ 
pic. Aud III a letter tua fiieod in Kiiglanjf 
he tlnis writes of those natives ; " 1 fomid ttita 
willi like countenances with the Hebrew racj 
Slid their children of so lively a resemblance 6 
tliein, that a niau would think himaclf ii 
l>lare, or Barry-street, in London, when fan si 
them." Here, without Ihe least previous \A9 
of those natives being hraeiites, thai fhrefll 
man was struck with their perfect resemblaiV 
of them; and witholher things which will ben 
ted. He speaks of their dress aud triukcts, t 
notable, like those of ancient Israel ; 
riiigB, nose jewels, bracelets en their 
legs, rings ^such as they were) on their iingei 
necklaces, made of polished shells found ii 
rivers, and on their coasts ; bands, shells e 
&athers ornamenting the heads of females, 
various strings of beads adorning several pail 
of the body. i 

Mr. Penn adds to his friend, that " he consii| 
ered this people as under a dark night; 
they believed in C>od and immortality, wil 
the help of metaphysics. For he says, tliey i 
farmed him that there was a great king, 
made them — that the souls of the good shall | 
lo him." He addo ; " Their worship consists S| 
two partH, sacrifice and cantieo. ' ' 

their iirst fruits ; and 

loted by Dr. BQuaiiiat. 


they kill goes to the fire." Mr. Penn proceeds 
to describe llicir spieiidid feast of hrst npe fruits, 
one of which he had attended. lie informs ; 
'• All that go to this feast must take a piece of 
money, which is made of the bone of a fi^ii.'^ — 
" None shall appear before me empty.'' lie 
Speaks of the agreement of their rites with those 
of the Hebrews, lie adds ; •" They reckon by 
moo'is ; they oifcr their first ripe fruits; they 
have a kind of feast of tabernacles ; they are 
said to lay their aitars with twelve stones ; they 
mourn a year; they ha\e their separations of 
wojnen ; with many other things that do not now 
occur." Here is a most artless testimony, given 
b}' that notable man drawn from his own obser- 
vations, and accounts given by him ; while the 
thought of this people's being actually Hebrew, 
probably was most di^ from his mind. 

8. Tkeir hacing a tnbe^ aanocr'nig in various 
respects^ to the tribe of Levi^ sluds further light 
on this subject. The thou^^ht naturally occurs, 
that if these are the ton tribes, and they have 
preserved so many of their religious traditions ; 
should we not be likely to tind among them some 
tradition of a tribe answering to the tribe of Le- 
vi ? If we should fnid something of this, the evi- 
dence of their being the tribes of Israel would 
indeed be more striking. Possibly this is fur- 
nished. The Mohazvk tribe v/ere held by the 
other tribes in great reverence ; and the other 
tribes round about them had been accustonted to 
pay them an annual tribute. Mr. Boudinot gives 
the following account of them. '^iMr, Golden 
says, he had becii told by old men (Indians) in 
New-Kngland, that whe^i their Indians were at 
war formerl} with tj'.e Mohawks. a> .^00= a« Oi»e 
(a Mohawk) appeared^ the Indians would raise a 

cry, CromhWX tohiW, a Mohawk ! aMohawkJ up- 
on which all wouM -flee as sheep before a wolf, 
without attempting to make the least resiatance. 
And Ihat all the nations around them have lor 
mauy years, entirely submitted to their advice, 
and paid Ihcm a yearly tribute. And the tribu- 
tary natiooa dared not to make war or peace, with- 
out the consent of the Mohawks." Mr. Golden 
goca on to state an instance of their speech to 
the governor of Virginia, in which it appears the 
MohaM'ks were the correctors of the misdoings 
the other tribes. 

Now, could any thing he found in their nami 
which might have an alhiaion to the superio: " 
of the tribe of Levi ; we should think the ( 
dance very considerable, that here are indeed 
the descendants of the part of that tribe which 
clave to the house of Israel. And here too evi- 
dence seems not wholly wanting. The Hebrew 
word JW/i/toW«i,fiignities an interpreter of the law, 
superior. We have, Ihen, a new view of the 
possible origin of the Mohawks ! 

9. Several pr<q>hetic Irnits of character gi-c en nf 
the Hebretiis, do aecuraldy apply to the aborigines 
tf Amtrica, Intemperance may be first noted. 
Isaiali, waiting about the time of the expulsion of 
Israel from Canaan, and about to predict their 
restoration, says; Isai. xxviii. 1 — "Wo to the 
crown of pride, the drunkai'ds of Ephraim ; — 

SEphraim was a noted name of (he ten tribes of 
sniel.) The crown of pride, the driinkarda of 
Ephraim, shil! be trodden under feet. For all 
tallies shall be full of vomit and filtliincss; so that 
there is no place cif an." 

In the course t>f the descriptions of tlieir Jrun- 
kcmicjs, tiiat of their rejection and restoration ii 
blended ; that the Lord by a mighty one would 




cast them down to the earth ; and their glorious 
beauty should be like that of a rich flower in a fer- 
tile valley, which droops, withers and dies. But 
in time God would revive it. " In that day shall 
the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory, and 
for a diadem of beauty unto the residue of this 

fieople." None who know the character of the 
ndians in relation to intemperance, need to be 
informed that this picture does mobt singularly 
apply to them. 

Doctor Williams in his history of Vermont, on 
this trait of Indian character, savs : '• No sooner 
had the Indians tasted of the ispirituous liquors 
brought by the Europeans, than they contracted 
a new appetite, which they were wholly unable 
to govern. The old and the young, the tachem, 
the warrior, and the women, whenever tiiey can 
obtain liquors, indulge themselves without mode- 
ration and without decencv, till unive;>-al drunk- 
enncss take? place. All the tiibes appear to be 
under the dominion of this appetite, and unable 
to govern it." 

A writer in the Connecticut Magazine assures 
us of the Indians in Massachusetts, ^^hen ov.r la- 
thers first arrived there ; '' As fooji r.s Ihcv had 
a taste of ardent spirits, they (li>covoice! :> .-iiror.g 
appetite for them \ and their thirst soen became 

Another trait of Hebrew character v.liich sin- 
gularly apphes to tlic Indians, is: lom.d in i^ai. iii, 
*'The bravery of their tit!]:'iiUi oinan:r;:tr, about 
their feet ; their cauli:-, aivd reii/vd lljxs like the 
moon ; their chains, brackets, n:Ui:'; r. , lonncts, 
ornaments of the legs ; liead-bur.dp, t<AL'ct?, ear- 
rings, rings, and liosc-jcwels ; the n.'^nllt s^, the 
wimples; and the critpij^f? piiis." Cne wouid 
imagine the prophet was here indeed describing 
Ihe natives of America in their full dress ! No 

olhur people on earth probably bear a rese( 
blance to such a degree* 
This descriptioa was giveajust before the ex* 

Eiilsion of Israel. And noUiing would be more 
kely than that their taste for these fleshy orna- 
ments should descend to posterity. For these 
make the earliest and deepest impressions on the 
rising generation. 

10. The Indians being in Irihes, with their hmdt 
and namas of tribes, affords fnrtlier light upon, 

'this mbjact. Tlie Hebrews not only had their 
tribca, and heads of tribes, as hare the Indians^ 
but they had their animal emblems of their tribes. 
Dan's emblem was a serpent; Issachar's an ass ; 
Benjamin's a wulf; and Jndah's a lion. And thii 
trait of character is not wanting among the na- 
tives of this land. They have their wolf tril>|''" 
their tiger tribe ; panther tribe ; bullulo tril^ 
bear tribe ; deer tribe ; raccoon tribe ; < 
tribe, and many others. What other nation 1 
earth bears any resemblance to this ? Here, no 
doubt, is Hebrew tradition. 

Various of the emblems giren in Jacob's last 
blessing, have been strikingly fulfilled in the 
American Indians. " Dan shall be a seipcnt bf 
the way; anaddefin the path, that biteth the 
horse heels, so that the rider shall fall back- 
wards. Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf; in the 
morning he shall devour the prey ; and at night 
he shall divide the spoil." Had the prophetic 
eye rested on the American aborigines, it seems 
as thomfh no picture could have been more ac- 

1 1 . 77ieir having an imitalion of the ancient 
f-itt/ of refuge, evinces the trulh of our subject.—' 
Their cih' of refuge has been liinted from Mr. 
Adair. But as this is so convincing an argument, 

(no natioQ on earth having any thing of the kind, 
but the ancient Hebrews and the Indians ;) Ihe 
reader shall be more particularly instructed on 
tliig article. Of one of these places of refuge, 
Mr. Boudinot says ; " The town of refuge called 
Choatt, is on a laiye stream of the Mississippi, 
five nuics above where Fort Loudon fonnerly 
■tood. Here, some years ago, a brave Englisb- 
maD was protected, atler killing an Indian war- 
rior in defence of his pioper1;j-. He told Mr. 
Adair that after some monllis stay in this place of 
refuge, he intended to return to his house in the 
neighborhood ; but the chiefs told him it would 
prove fatal to him. So that he was obliged to 
contiiuie there, till he pacified the friends of the 
deceased, by presents to their satisfaction. " Id 
the upper country of Muakagec, (says Doctor 
Boudinot) was an old heluvrd tiiwn, called Koo- 
lak — which is a place of safety for those who kill 
^ "Id almost every Indian nation (he adds) there 
are several peaceable towns, which are called old 
helavid, k'llif, or wkUt toTcna. It is not within the 
memoiy of the oldest people, tliat blood was ever 
■bed ill thciD ; alUiough they afleu force pci-sflitf 
from them, aud put them elsewhere to death." 
Who can read tliis, and not be satisfied of the 
origin of this Indian tradition. 

Tlie well known trait of Indian character, that ' 
they will pursue one who has killed any of thejT 
friends, ever so far, and ever so long, as an aven- 
ger of the blood shed, thus hes clearly open to 
view. It originated in the permission given to 
an avenger of blood in the commonwealth of Is- 
rael i aud is found ui such » degree, probably, in 
no other nation. 


■ Other Itidian rites, and 

other (?e4 

tralionSf go to evince the fact, that this j, 
■are the ten tribes of Israel. Further details are 
given, and might be enlarged upon : as, religious 
separatioDS of Indian feiuaJes. almost exactly an- 
swering to the law in ancient Israel ; their beginn- 
ing their year asdid Israel,withtiienewnioon afler 
the vernal equinox ; their special attention paid 
to new moons, as was paid in Israel; their green- 
corn moon, the most lovely of all, even as kracl 
had tbeir heloved montli Abib, which signifies 
an tar of green corn ; their Jubilee declared to 
have been observed by some of the natives : 
" Melvenda and Acasta both afBrm, that the na- 
tives keep a Jubilee according to the usage in 
Israel." The testimony of Edwards, in bis 
" West Indies," that the striking uniformity of 
the prejudices and customs of the Caribbee In- 
dians, to the practices of the Jews, has not esca- 
?ed the notice of historians, — as Gumella, Du 
'crtre, and others;" and the various prcdictioni 
of the final restoration of Israel, bringing them 
from the ends of the earth, from the west, and 
(as one translates il) " from the going down of 
the suQ." Thecie things open fruitful sources of 

But i have more than equalled my designed 
limits. It is again asked, ia it possible to find an- 
other people OB earth exhibiting an equal degree 
of evidence of their being the ten tribes of Is- 
rael ? Can another people ou earth be found ex- 
liibiling one sixth part of the evidence adduced 
in favour of the American natives ? We expect 
no new revelation, nor miracles wrought, to in- 
Ibrin who arc the ten tribes of Israel. Here it 
Just such evidence as we should rationally look 
ifo r; bat six times as much of it, &% we ihooM 


I dare to have expected, after a lapse of S90Q 
ryears, with a people without letters. Our abo- 
rigines are essentially distinguished from all oth- 
er pagans on earth, iu the uniforni belief of most 
of them of one God ; and their freedom from 
false gods ; as well as in many other striking 
things, which appear in their history. 

How prone have been mankind, in all ages, to 
idolatry. Hundreds of thousands of false gods, 
of every foolish description, have existed in the 
bewildered imaginations df men destitute of rev- 
elation. But the knowledge of the true God 
was renounced. "As they did not like to retain 
God in their knowledge, God gave them up" to 
almost every description of idolatry. How early 
did the world (in several centuries after the * 
flood) go off to gross idolatry, even under the in- ^ 
itructtons of the patriarchs, and so soon after the 
tferrible admonition of the flood ! The natives of 
one of the greatest islands of the eastern ocean, 
are so depraved, that it has not been known that 
they had the least idea of any Supreme Beii^. — - 
How prone were the Jews and Israel, in ancient 
times, even under all their rich advantages, to 
nnite in the idolatries of their heathen neigh- 
bours ! 

But the 70 years captivity of the Jews in Ba- 
bylon, cured them utterly of idolatry, from that 
day to this. While they have been dispersed, 
and been infidels relative to Jesus Christ ; they ' 
have been firm believers in the Old Testament, ' 
and in the one God of Abraham. It is analogous 
with this to espect, that the ten tribes {wherever 
they are) woidd be cured, as well as the Jews, of 
their gross idolatry, and would be kept daring 
■their long outcast stale, in a situation somewhat 
Tescmbling that of the Jews, tn tkeir ip«culftll9ft 

■vwm-^g . g 

coDCcrnii^ God. Such has been the case Trilb 
the Datives of thU coutineot, at least to as great 
a degree as could be without a bible or letters ^ 
and such has been the case with no other people 
on earth ! Nothing but the very special power 
and mercy of God, could have kept these nativei 
ill this traditional habit of acknowledging the one 
only living and true God, as they have done. — 
Wfilethey have been dead to the Ufe of reli^on, 
as a valley of dry bones ; yet they have strangely 
been kept from acknowledging any other God but 
Jehovah, the Great Spirit, who made them and 
all things. 

And light, in these last days of wonders, {when 
the time for the restoration of Israel and J udah is 
drawing near) has been breaking out and accu- 
mulating on this subject, to eshibit this origin of 
the American natives. It is ascertained in the 
" Star in the West," that Spaniards, Porlugweit^ 
French, English, Jcies, and Christians, mtri of 
learning, and the iltilerale, and sea-faring men ; 
all have united in Ike staUjnents of facts, which go 
to indicate that these Indians are the descendants 
of Israel! Mr. M'Kenzie has travelled from the 
Atlantic very far to the north-west ; and some of 
his statements of facts go to the same point. Vari- 
ous of tlie European visitants to this continent, 
early after it was known to the civilized world.ex- 
pressed their surpriseon finding among the nativei 
thin^ which bore such a resemblance to the his- 

ry of ancient Israel. What account can be 
pren of all tliis, but that here are the very ten 
'ibes? These tribes must be somewhere on 

.rft. Where are they ? How can Ihcy be 
known? Whence came our native Americans? 
What other account can be given of their tradi- 
tioni, their language, Hebrew woidi uid pbratM, 


(the radical language of their tribes) and the 
broken Iragmcuts of the ancient economy of Is- 
rael running Ihrou^li so many of them ? It would 
be far wilder and more difficult to account for 
these things on any other principle, than to say 
we have evidence that is satisfactory, of having 
found at last, the very valley of the dry bones of 
the house of Israel! The facts stated of them, 
must on every other principle, appear most unac- 
countable, not to say miraculous. 

Before any degree of confidence is admitted 
against the evidences adduced, as though other 
and more conclusive evidence must point out at 
last, the ten tribes ; let it be recollected, that the 
divine mode of affording evidence is not always 
such as human wisdom would dictate. The Jews 
had their strong objections against the evidences 
of the divinity, the resurrection and ascension of 
Christ. These were not such as they would have 
chosen. In the midst of such evidences as God 
saw fit to afford, the Jews required more. "What 
sign showest thou ?" " How long dost thou make 
us to doubt?" "Let him descend from the cross, 
that we may see and believe." Naaman had 
formed his expectations how his cure would be 
effected, by the prophet in Israel. He " would 
come out and lay his hand on the sore, and call 
upon his God and heal him." And for the mor- 
tifying reverse of tliis, he turned to go away in a 

Many things may be very probably fancied 
concerning the kinds or degrees of evidence, 
which must at last exhibit the ten tribes to the 
world. But Providence may adopt a different 
method. The methods divinely adopted in eve- 
ry point, have usually been .such as to stain the 
pride of all human glory. The Afj^hans in Per- 


sia may proTc to be a small part of the ten tribes. 
But it is doubted whether their evidence is by 
any means so full as that of the American na- 
tives. The latter have, to say the leasts -seTj 
considerable of just such kind of evidence, as it 
would naturally be supposed must bring to light 
the ten tribes after remaining for millenaries in 
a savage state. May the subject be duly exam- 
ined, and a correct decision in due time be form- 







An interesting address is fcunrl in the IVAh 
chapter of Isaiali to ir'nuo peoi^li .'Mic Inst day?; 
callihg Ibem to have a special agt :m.*\ i:i fhe recov- 
ery a:Kl restoration of tlK: ancicis.t -reopie ot'Ci<^d, 
M::?jiy yeu'i? ago, vvliiie writing my l)is(.itali'inon 
the Pro .)I»«;cieri, T becan.n ''^uch 'nter^..Mci in this 
address '.-f Isai^.h ; a:id in that dl?:-criarioii. csive 
a |)ara|;!irac:e of It ; cj:rt ivi.,-^ Ihen itv,:is. an 
ad(h'('-.- \'.t I he people e:* ■ iod in Cic:it irrliain. 
1 have fiiuce b. '"■•..«* • ; ,\ 'I'iibn.rit vH/i.don ; and 
now apprehe \.! '1 '.- '--c rn i.ri'lre>s tw ibe Chris- 
tian people of ti>v't Uii'ii- . Si le of '•.rncrica. 

To pr.pare t!ic' ;-.,r i^c .•;o.;t'"-.npir.iio:! of 
"tills adrir-.-.^s, let sev r-ii {l:'.'\: ■■ ^''^ v.\'- i-.!: v.-A : 

1. Ill lii'j i-roi)!ie(''c vr!".; ' =• . i..- . rii^'':'-.>-es 
are mule to »:*iticp>. or eot^eei'!;- : ... . .•. '.*. or- Id 
it not bo -;tr;::. >:e. if no n?ei/.'v^:j we."' !*./■ ri * i 'je 
pro;.hccie3 f.i tl-Is m-".' v.\:ii.i."i vvj:;:i; v M.:h 
\'':vz i\v^'.K''^ hv ;. I'c ""tio^:s HeMvoii lO :■.' \y^i so 
di.-^in:: :'.. 'li :'\ i (i'''ire bofli in ii..^ f ' . •/ and 
relitrious world, in the last days? It luiWuAj 


would seem unaccountable, and the thought cam 
hardly be admitted. 

2. The address in the eighteenth of Isaiah, to 
be contemplated, is clearly an address to some 
people concerning events to transpire in the last 
days ; and which are intimately connected with 
the "battle of that great day •of God Almighty, 
which is still future ; and which is to introduce 
the Millennium. This appears in verses 5, 6, 7, 
of the chapter, which will by and by be noted. 

3. Th^ address cannot haveJbeen to any an- 
cient nation or people •, a^ some expositors have 
inconsiderately supposed. But it must be to a 
nation of the last days ; a nation now on earth ; 
a nation to be peculiarly instrumental in the res- 
toration of the Hebrews in the last days. For 
this is the very object of the address, as will ap- 
pear. The demand in the address is, to go and 
restore that ancient people of God in the last 
days; or at a time intimately connected with the 
tremendous scenes on ai.uchristi^n Europe, and 
on the hostile wicked world, which shall sweep 
antichristian nations from the earth, and pre- 
pare the way for the millennial kingdom of Jesui 
Christ. This will clearly appear. 

4. The address then, is to a nation, that may 
seem to have leisure for the important business - 
assigned, when the old and eastern parts of tlie 
world are in the ellbrvcscence of revolution, and* 
in those struggles which precede dissolution. — 
This consideration fixes the address to a people 
distipci and distant from those old lands ; and 
hence probably to our new world. 

■5. If it be a /ad. as is apprehended, that 
the nborigincs of our continent are indeed de- 
scended from the ten tribes of Israel ; our un-^ 

lion, no doulit, must be the people addressed t 
restore tbem ; to bring tlieni to the knowledge 6 
tbe gospel, and to do with them whatever the" 
God of Abraham designs shall be done. The 
great and generous Christian people, who oecu- 
py much of the land of those natives, and who 
are on the ground of their continent, and hence 
arc the host prepared to meliorate their condi- 
tion, and bring them to the knowledge and order 
of the God of Israel, must Of course be the peo- 
ple to whom this work is assigned. This one 
consideration would do much toward the decis- 
ion of our question, Who is the nation address- 

6. Various things are found in the predictions 
of the restoration of God's ancient peopl^which 
strikingly accord with the idea of a great'oranch 
of them being recovered from tliis land, and by 
the agency of the people of our Stales. A few 
of these shall be noted. 

In the thirtieth and thirty-first chapters of Jer- 
emiah, the prophet treats of the united restora- 
tion of Judah and Israel. These chaptere were 
written about one hundred and twenty years af- 
ter the expulsion of the ten tribes. And in rela- 
tion to the ten tribes, tliey have never yet had 
even a primary accomplishment, or any degree 
of fulfilment. The restoration there predicted 
is tohe'tn^'tke lalterdai/s;" chap. xxx. 24: and 
at the time near the battle of the great day ; see 
verse 6 — B, 23, 24. Much of the substance of 
tliese chapters is appropriated to the ten tribes 
of Israel ; tiiough Judah is expressly to be res- 
tored with them. Of the fonner, (having then 
been outcast fur an hundred and twenty years,) 
God says; chap. xxsi. 20; "Is Ephraim my 
dear eon ? h he a pleasant cluld ? For ^incc I 

spake against him, (or expelled him rrom Ca- 
naan,} 1 do earnestly remember him still ; there- 
fore my bowels arc troubtefi for him; I will sure- 
ly have mercy upon him, sailh the Lord." The 
next verse imilcs and piedicts his final restora^ 
tion. These yearnings of the diviiie coropas- 
Bion for Ephraim (one noted name of the ten 
tribes) are the immediate precursor of his resto- 
ration. " 1 will siut'l.v have mercy upon him, 
Baith the Lord. Set Ihee up wny-marlci^, make 
thee liigh heaps, set thine heart toward [he high 
way — turn again, O virgin of Israel ; turn again 
to these Ihy cities," '• I will again he (lie God 
I of all ihe liimilies of Israel ; and they shall be 

my people." " For lo, the days come, sailh the 
Lord, chat I will bring again the captivity of my 

(people Israel and Judah ; and I will cause Ihein 
to return to the land that I gave to thtir fathers, 
and they shall possess it." " Fear Iboii not, O 
ray servant Jacob, saith the Lord ; urither be 
disniHycd, O Israel ; for lo, I will save thee from 
<r/*a)'." " Behold I will bring them fiom the 
north country, and galiier them from llie consfa 
of the earth.^^ In this country "(i/ur" otT, these 
" coasts of the earth,''^ they had been in an oui- 
caH state. "Because they called tlieean (iH/f«*r, 
I say ing ; " This is Zion, n-hom no man seeketh of- 

I (er." (For more than 2000 years none songht af- 

I terthe ten tribes.) These ideae strikiugly ac- 
cord with their having been outcasts from the 
known world, in America. This might wilhsin- 
I gnlar propriety he called the land afar off, and 
, Ihe coasts of the earth. 

\ In the same connexion, when God promises lo 

I g ather them "from the coasts of the carlh," ajid 
H^nivSi "they shall come with weeping and with 
^^^Bmplication : for I am a lalber to Israel, ati4 

^ : =J 


Kphniim is my first born y"^ he adds ; " Hear 
tlic word of the Lord, O ye nations, and declare 
il in the isles afar olF, and say, lie that scattered 
Israel will gather him, and keep him as the shep- 
lierd doth his flock." *•' Isles afar offP'^ Isles in 
the Hebrew language, signify any lands, ever so 
extensive, away over great waters. Where can 
these '^Hsles afar off ^'^'^ (ihose ''coasts of the earth,'^'^ 
here addrcsf?ed by God in relation to the restora- 
tion of his outcast yet beloved Ephraim,) where 
can they be so naturally found as in America ? 

In other prophets the same things are found. 
In Isai. xliii. God promises this same restoration 
of Isr.'icl. '• I^iit now, thus sailh the Lord, that 
created thee, O Jacob, and he that formed thee, 

Israel ; Fear not, for I have redeemed thee, I 
have called tfiee by thy name ; thou art mine. 
When thou passest through the waters, I will be 
with thee. I have loved thee with an everlast- 
ing love ; therefore will I give men for thee, and 
people for thy life. Fear not, for I am with thee. 

1 will bring thy seed from the cast, and gather 
thee from the west : I will say to the north, Give 
up ; and to the south. Keep not back : bring my 
sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of 
the eartk,^'^ " Thus saith the Lord, who maketh 
a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty wa- 
ters ; Behold I will do a new thing ; now it shall 
spring forth ; shall ye not know it ? I will even 
make a wav in the wilderness, and rivers in the 
desert." In Isai. xi. is this wonderful restora- 
tion. Ephraim and Judah are both restored ; 
the one from his "dispersed," the other from his 
''''onlcasC' state ; and their mutual envies are for- 
ever healed. And the places from which they 
are recovered are noted ; among which arc " the 
isles of flye sea ;" or lands away over the sea. 

„,. " lh( four cnrrifs of fke fartli.'^ Certyinly 

Jen, from America ! This aiirely is one of the 

ors of the earllu Of such a land away 

^ver sea, It is prtdicled, Iriai. !x. y ; " Surely the 

blea sliuil w-uit for me, and the ships of Tarshish 

ret, {or a |iower cxpei't in navii^alioii,) to briog 

(By sons from f;ir." lu Zech. viii. 7. is the samfe 

" Tlids saith the Lord of ho^ls ; Behold 

will save rttj jttoplc from the east countiy, and 

■ Kfil oiimlni ; and I will bring tbein, 

d they ihall dwell in Jerusalem; iiiid (hey shall 

B my pcojilc, ai>d I will be Uieir God." Here 

l-thoy are saved iVoni tlie vitst counlri/ ; or as it 

may be rendered, /ro/*( Ike going dnwn of the sun. 

The going down of the sun from Jerusalem, 

would be over America, in Zech. x.'*#ffl^ is 

this same restoration of Epbraim by name ; 

meaning the ten tribes. "] will hiss for them, 

(or call them,) and gather them ; for I have rc- 

dcemeii them. And they shall remember me from 

Jar countries; and they shall live, and their chU- 

dren, and turn again." 

Such promises of the restoration of Israel from 
far countries, from the wexl, or the going down of 
Ike mn, from the coasts of (Ae tarlh, from the 
tnds of ifU earth, from tsle.i afar, their bang 
brought in ships front far, making their way in 
,, the sea, their path in the mighty waters ; these 
t expressions certainly well accord with the ten 
' tribes being brought from America. And snch 
passages imply an agency by which such a resto- 
ration shall be eil'ccted. Where shall such an 
ao;ency be so naturally found, as among a great 
Christian people, providentially planted on the 
very ground occupied by tlie outcast tribes ^ ' 
Israel in their long e&ilemcnt ; and who are M> i 
happily remote from the bloody scene 

fe in tlie lasl tlays, as to have leisure for thel 
. iport.iut business assigned ? 

Surely then, this business wnuld be assigned, 
either tacitly or expressly, to our nation. At thia 
conclusion we safely arrive, reasoning « priori. 
The circumstances of the case enforce it. Aud 
we might expect so interesting a duty, relative 
to an event on which the prophecies so abun- 
dantly rest, would not be left to uncertain deduc- 
tions, hut would be expressly enjoined. 

We may then, open the prophetic scriptures 
with some good degree of coniideDce, that tlie. 
assignnient of such a task is somewhere to be 
foimd. And where so natural to be found as in 
the prophecy of Isaiah ? He is the most evan- 
gelical prophet ; and trcals largely upon the res- 
toration of his brethren. He lived to behold the 
expulsion of the ten tribes ; and must have been 
deeply affected with the event. The expulsioQ 
of the ten tribes took place 725 years befor^ 
Christ. Isaiah is supposed to have begun I 
minisfry about the year 760 before Christ; . 
years before that expulsion : and to have contin- 
ued it about 27 years after that event. It is then 
very natural, to consider his mind as deeply af- 
fected with thia event ; with tlie place of the 
long exilement of his brethren of Israel ; and as 
delighted with a view of their final restoration, 
which he was inspired to forctel. 

Behold this man of God then, wrapt in the \it- 
ions of the Almighty, casting an eye of faith dowtt 
the lapse of time to tlie days of the final restora- 
tion of his long rejected brethren. He finds pre- 
sented in vision, away over the Mediterranean, 
and the Atlantic, far in the west, or going down 
of the snn, the continent of their long banish- 
we nt. He also beholds in vision a great nation 
12' ■" 

L fro 

Jting there in the last dajrs ; a land of freed) 
tad reli^oa. He bears the whisper of the Sj^ 
It of inspiration, directi»g him to address that far 
sequestered and liappy land; and call their at- 
teation to the tiuat restoration of hi:^ people. 

Isaiah xviii. verse 1. "Ho, land sluidowing 
with wings, which is beyond ike rivers of Ethio- 
pia." Our translators render this address, " Wo 
to the land." But this is manifestly incorrect, 
as the best expositors agree. The Hehrew par- 
ticle here translated !Vo tn, is a particle of friend- 
ly calling, as well as of denouncing. And the 
connexion in any given place, must decide which 
rendering shall be given. In this place, the 
whole connexion and sense decide, that the word 
is here a friendly call, or address ; as in this pae- 
■age ; " Ho every one that thirsteth, come ye to 
the waters." 

The land addressed, lies "beyond the rivers 
of Ethiopia." It is agreed that these rivers 
mean the mouths of the Nile, which enter from 
Egypt into the south side of the Mediterranean. 
It IE as though the prophet had said ; Thou land 
bihdd in vision away over the mouths of the J^Ue. 
Where would such a line strike ? It would glance 
over the northern edge of the States of Barbary. 
But could the friendly address to a people of the 
last days, light on those barbarous Mohammedan 
fhores ? Surely not. No land " shadowing with 
wing:*," or that would aid the restoration of the 
Hebrews, is found in those horrid regions. No : 
the point of compass and the address must have 
been designed for a new world, seen in that di- 
lection. This address of Heaven must be to 
our western continent ; or to a hospitable people 
found here. Our southern boundary is not far 
from tbe latitude of tb* mauthf of the Nile. TIm 



prophetic eve glanced beyond M lands tbt 
known ; and hence no land is named, it m " 
have been a land over tlie Mediterranean, s 
the Atlantic. 

Thou land "shadowing with wingB." 
above direction lands the prophetic vision a 
point of the western continent, where the t 
great wings of North and South America meet,! 
at the body of a great Ea^-le. This at first ml^ 

furnish the prophetic imagery of a land " si 

owing with win^." As though tlie inspiring 
Spirit had whispered; The continent of those but) 
great wings shall be found at last most interest- 
ing in relation to your Hebrew brethren. 

And those two great winga shall prove but an 
emblem of a great nation then on that continent-, 
far sequestered from the seat of antichrist, and of 
tyranny and blood ; and whose asylum for equal 
rights, liberty, and religion, shall be well repre- 
sented by such a national coat of arms. — the pro- 
tecting wings of a great Eagle ; which nation in 
yonder settingof the sun, (when in the last days, 
judgments shall be thundering through the na- 
tions of the eastern continent,) shall be found a 
realm of peaceful protection to all, who fly from 
the abodes of despotism to its peaceful retreat ; 
even as an eagle protects her nest from all hann. 
land dial, when all other land3 shall be 
id to have trampled on the Jews, shall be 
td to have protecting wings for them; free 
im Buch cruelty, and ready to aid them. 
Verse 2. " Who setidtlh ambassadors bjf the. 
sea, even in ve!:sth of bulriiskes upon the face of 
ihf loalers." It is to be supposed that a great 
difiicutty would at once present itself to the pro- 
phet's view, when beholding in vision this west- 
ern sontiaent, oyer the mighty waters of the 


Mediterranean, and the Atlantic, and about to 
be called to restore his people. What could be 
done across such mighty waters ? The difficulty 
at once vanishes, by the prophet's being ascer- 
tained of this characteristic of the people ad- 
dressed. They would be most expert in navi- 
gation. They could traverse the Atlantic, and 
Mediterranean, and be able to send missionaries 
to Jerusalem, or to the ends of the earth, in those 
last days, or convey the Hebrews from one conti- 
nent to another, with an expedition similar to 
that wHh which the Nile (beyond which this new 
world is beheld) used to be navigated with the 
sklifs made of the bulrush, or the rind of the pa- 

Verse 2, concluded. " Sayings Go ye swift 
messengers to a nation scattered and pealed, to a 
people terrible from the beginning hitherto ; a na- 
tion meted out and trodden down, whose land the 
rivers have spoiled*^^ ' Saying,^ before the com- 
mand Go, is interpolated in our translation, and 
destroys the sense; as though the nation said this 
to her swift messengers ; whereas it is what God 
says to the nation addressed, q. d. Come thou 
protecting nation ; I have a groat business for 
you. Collect and restore my ancient people ; 
that nation whose ancient history has been so re- 
markable and terrible ; that nation so long dis- 
persed, robbed, and insulted in the people of the 

*Our ftates may claim the characteristic of expert naviga- 
tion, equal at least to any people on earth. Consider our 
st^am-boat navigation, and such accounts as the following ; 
fnnnd in Niles' Register, of March 22, 1823. "Baltimore 
vessels. — The brig Thessalian arrived at Baltimore on Satur- 
day evening last, in 79 days from Lima, and 24 from the sight 
of the city of Pernambuco, in Brazil; a distance of 12,000 
miles ; averaging six and a quarter miles every hour of her 
passage. I'his vessel was, l^s than eight monllis ago, on the 
s^tocks in this ci< v." 

anil so \ongouicaet in the ten triheB.- 
fof people of line, tine, (as in the Hf brew, i 
III tlie margin oi'lhe great Bible;) or, whose oi^ 
\y hope to find their ancient inheritance mwat V 
Oil the line of divine promise, or the entail of tta 
covenant. As tlie land addressed is desci'ibei 
as away over tlie months of the Nile ; so v 
cliaracteristics in iLe address are suggested froOl 
thoitghls associated with that river, and (he p 
pie on its banks ; as the bulrush vessel just not- ' 
(d; and here tiie measuring line. The river 
Nile periodically overflowed Us banks, and swept 
away the boundaries of every man's inheritance 
on its interval. Everyman, then, had to depend 
on a noted line, to measure anew and find hia 
land. So the Hebrews, having by their sins, and 
expulsion from Canaan, and from the covenant 
of Abraham, lost all the visible boundaries of 
tiieir inheritance ; have no ground of hope of re- 
gaining tlieir Btanding.eilher in Palesline, or in 
the covenant of grace, but the line of the mere 
and sovereign promise of God, for their restora- 
tion. The word is doubled, line, Htie ; a mere 
ilcbrsism, to form a superiaiive. As peace, peace, 
muBna perfect peace, — Isai. xxvi. 3; andaa^yorf, 
good, means the best ; so line, line, means svper- 
lativetkf of line, or altogether dependent on the 
mere promise of God. That the allusion is to 
the event noted is evident from what follows : — 
Whose land the rivers have spoiled." Whose 
iritance (in tlie Holy Land) has been torn 
1 them, and overrun by neigbouring hostile 
itions. often symbolized by rivers, even as the 
^ids by the sides of the Nile of^CD had their 
iQundarics swept away by the overflowings of 
llmt river. Thus the Romans firs-t, llicn tlie Per- 
uans, the Saracens, the EgypliauE and the Turki, 






hare overflowed and possessed the Holy Land. 
But the line of divine promise will restore it to 
the Hebrews.* 

Go thou protecting people ; shadow with thy 
wings my ancient family, as though the Most 
High should say ; For thus it is written ; "Sure- 
ly the isles shall wait for me, (or lands away over 
sea from Palestine,) and the ships of Tarshish 
first, (a people expert in navigation,) to bring my 
sons from far." A.far distant land over sea shall 
be engaged in this work. 

Verse 3. "^// ye inhabitants of the worlds and 
dwellers on the earthy see ye zohen he lifteth up the 
ensign on the mountains, and when he blozoeth a 
trumpet, hear yc." After the land shadowing 
with wings is under way in fulfilment of the di- 
vine requirement; an apostrophe is made by the 
Most High to all nations, to stand and behold the 
banner of salvation now erected for his ancient 
people ; and to hear the great gospel trumpet, 
the blessed Jubilee, now to be blown for their 
collection and their freedom. The ancient sil- 
ver trumpets in Israel, collected their solemn as- 
semblies. And the same trumpets, with joyful 
and peculiar blasts, ushered in the Jubilee mora, 
and loosed every bond slave of the Hebrews. — 
And the antitype of the event shall now be ac- 

This standard of salvation at that period, is a 
notable event in the prophets. See Isai. xi. 12, 
where God sets his hand a second time to gather 
his Hebrew family from all nations and regions 

* Much perplexity had rested on the passa«;e, a naiion of 
lin% line ; till the above solution occurred to mind. With 
this I am fully satisfied. It is natural, as is the bulrush navi- 
,^5i.lion. It agrees with facts, and is confirmed by the clause 
foUowin*: "whose land the rivers have spoiled." 

■rond sea ; dutilitlcss from America, as well as 
p er nations ; and it is promised, " He shall set 
■ up an ensign for the ^tions, aud Ehail assemble 
the outcasts of Israel, and gather logetlier the dis- 
pcrsed of Jiidah from Uie four corners of tlie 
earth." If from the four comers of the earth; 
then surely from America! In this passage are 
the descriptive situations from which the two 
great branches of the Hebrews are recovered: 
Judiih from being dispersed among the nations, 
and Israel from being outcast from tlie nations ; 
thrnwaout of sight of the social world, precisely 
as they have been in the wilds of America fc 
more lliau two thousand years. ^ 

Verse 4. *'For so lite Lord said vnto me, /* 
take mu rest, and I wili considtr my d^tlH 
place like a clear heat upon kerbs, and like a ch 
of dew in ihe heat of harvest.^' The event and 
the Inures in (his passage are best explained by 
those found in synchroniral passages, or prophe- 
cies allitding to the same event. And according 
to them, it is as though the Most High should say, 
I am now about to renew my ancient dwelling 
place. I will again ha\-e a tued habitation m 
Canaan; as Zech. i, IG : " Thus saith the Lord, 
1 am again relnrued to Jerusalem with mercies ; 
my house shall be built in it;" and viii. 3; "Thus 
saith the Lord, I am returned unto Zion, and will 
dwell in the midst of Jerusalem." And the event 
shall he as " life from the dead" to the nations: 
Rom. xi. 15. Therefore, ye gentile lauds, now 
behold. I will now be to my ancient heritage 
like the genial heat of the sun to promote vege- 
tation after the death of winter; as Isai, xxvi. 19, 
ffliy dew is as the dew of herbs," which in the 
Mng shall vegetate. And I will be like (he 
" , cooling cloud in the sultry beat of har- 




The Hebrews shall now become "as ttie 
inder grass springing* out of the farth, by the 
clear shining after rain ;", 2 Sara, xxiii. 4. Yes, 
" 1 will be as Ihe dew unto Israel ; he shall grow 
as tile lily, «nd cast forth his roots as Lebanoo ; 
His branches shall spread, and his ber.uty sball 
be as the olive tree, and his smell as Lebanon ; 
Hos. xiv. 5, G. The nations shall behold tbi« 
fuUilmeikt of divine grace to Israel, and sliall &nd 
instruments raised up adequate to the work. 

But a tremendous scene to the antichristiajl 
world shall be found intimately connected. 

Verse 5. *'For afore tkf harvest, when the bud 
U perfect, and the sour grape ig ripening in tht 
fiower, ht thall onth cut off the sprigs with prvn- 
ing hooks, and laht away atid cut rfoieii the bran.' 
c/tes." Or, near the fullilmeiit of this event of 
the Iftst days, a vat^l scene is to be accomplished. 
Prophetic notice is ever given relative to that 
period, that tlii; salvation of the friends of Zion 
shall be ushered iu with a proportionable des- 
truetion to her enemies. The harvest and vint- 
age of divine wrath, called " the battle of that 
great day of God Almighty," must be accomplish- 
ed ; and at the time of the restoration of the 
Hebrews, that tremendous event shall be at the 
doors. As in the natural vineyard, when the 
blossom is succeeded by the swelled pulp, which 
soon reaches the size of the full grapes, indicat- 
ing that the vintage is near; bo at the time of the 
service here divinely demanded, wickedness shall 
have blossomed ; pride shall have budded in an- 
tichristian realms. The sour grapes of their 
tjranny. violence, and licentiousness, will be 
&und to be arriving at their growth ; indicating 
that the time for the casting of tlie vine of the 


_ &rth into the wine press of the wrath of Goij 
jusL ut hand. 

Verse 6. " They shall bf hft togrlher unlo the 
fbmh of the minmlinns, and the beasts of tkt 
eiiHh ; and the fowls shall sitmmer tipon litem, 
aiid the beasts of the ca/ih shall winter upon 
them," Suun the most promiocnt branches of 
the aiitichrigtian vine of the earth, sliall be col- 
lected and trodden upon the niountainB of Israel, 
in the noted scene of Armageddon ; Rev. xvi. 
IG. The passage noted in Ezck. xxxix. 17 — 20, 
(at tlie time of the slanijhter of Gog and his 
bunds, and which is given us an illustration of the 
text,) shall then be accomplished. " And thou 
son of man, Uius Siiilh the Lord God, Speak uuto- 
cvery featliered fowl, and to every beast of the 
field, Assemble yourselves, and come ; gatiier 
yourselves on every side to my sacrifice that I do 
sacrifice for you, even a great sacrifice upon the 
muuijt:iins of It^racl, that ye may cat flesh, and 
drink blood. Ve i^hall eat the ilesh uf the mighty, 
and drink the blood of the princes of the earth ; 
ofram^, of lambs, and of goats, of bullocks, all 
of them fatlings of Ba$han. And ye shall eat 
fat till ye be full, and drink blood till ye be drun- 
ken, of my sacrifice which I sacrificed for you. 
Thus ye tthall he filled at my table with horses 
and chariots, with mighty men, and with all men 
of war, saith the Loi'd God." Also the further 
illuslration of the same, Rev. xix. 17, IS ; "And 
I navf an angel standing in the sun ; and he cried 
with a loud voice, saying to all tlie, fowls that tly 
in the midst of heaven, Come and gatlier your- 
selves together uuto the supper of the great God; 
That ye may cat the Ilesh of kings and tlic Jle^h 
of captains, and (he Rti\\ of mighty men, and the 

g.fiesli of horses, and of ihcui that sit on Ihcm, t 


the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both 
small and great.'' 

Verse 7. ^' Jit that time shall the present be 
brought unto the Lord of hosts of a people scatter' 
ed and pealed^ and from a people terrible from 
the beginning hitherto ; a nation meted out and 
trodden under foot^ whose land the rivers have 
spoiled^ to the place of the name of the Lord of 
hosts^ the Mount Zion.^^ Just at that period of 
the world, the present which I claim of you shall 
be brought to the Lord of hosts, of that scatter- 
ed and outcast people; of that people so terrible 
in ancient times to their enemies by the presence 
and power of their God with them ; that people 
of "line, line,'^^ or depending solely on the meas- 
uring line of promise, or the entail of the cove- 
nant, found in the sacred oracles for their resto- 
ration to their ancient inheritance in the church 
of God, and in the promised land ; inasmuch as 
the boundaries of their inheritance in both these 
respects have long since been swept away. A 
present of this people must be brought by you, 
sequestered land shadowing with wings, unto the 
place of the name of the Lord of hosts, the 
Mount Zion. 

Ye friends of God in the land addressed ; can 
you read this prophetic direction of the ancient 
prophet Isaiah, without having your hearts burn 
within you ? Surely you cannot, if you can view 
it as an address of the Most High to you. God 
here exalts you, in the last days, the age of terror 
and blood, as high as the standard to be raised 
for the coUecr'ion of the seed of Abraham ; " on 
the mountains J^'^ Nor is this the only passage, in 
which this your exaltation is recognized. See 
the same honour alluded to, in Zeph. iii. 10. — 
TJicre, nearly connected with the battle of the 


it day of God, in which he there asserts he 
" will gather the uatiotis, and assemble the kiii<^ 
doms, to pour upon them his indignation, even all 
his fierce anger, and all the earth shall be devour- 
ed with the fire of his jealousy ;'• and that ha 
will then " turn to the people a pure language^ 
that tticy may all call upon the name of the Lorcli 
and serve him with one consent ;" he informs, 
as in the address in Uaiah ; " From beyond the 
rivers of Etliiopia, my suppliants (or a people 
who are my worshippci's,) shall bring mine otter- 
ing, even the daughter of my dispci'sed, (as the 
verse should be read.) Here is the same peo- 
ple, away in the same direction, over the moutha 
of the Nile, who arc called God's suppliants, am 
who, iu those days of vengeance, are to brio 
their offering to God, coiisisthig of the desceudr 
ants of his ancient people. 

If these views be correct. Christians in oi 
land may well bless God that it is their happy 
to live in this land shadowing with wings; t 
protecting realm, an asylum of liberty and ri 
gion; a land so distant from the scat of antichrist 
and of the judgments to be thundered down on 
old corrupt establishments in the last days. And 
their devout gratitude to Heaven ought to 
for the blessing of having their existence bo 
the period alluded to in this sublime predictioi 
when this land of liberty is beginning to feel bi 
distinguishing immunities compared with the 
tablishmcots of tyranny and corruption in the 
continent. We may rejoice to have our eart 
tot with a people of whom such honorable men- 
tion is made by the prophetic spirit of old ; an^^ 
to whom so noble a work is assigned. Our chil- 
dren coming upon the stajje may live to see thi' 
meaning and J'ulfiliiient of tliis prophetic chap- 



which is mo^t i-idi in scnUmcnt, and whicS 
will not fail of accomplishment. 
'. Tlic great argument founil in tliis sacred ad- 
dress, lo induce to a compliance with the duty 
demanded, ie, the terrors of the dajs of ven- 
geance on eastern corrupt natioiiG; which seeins 
■ ni imply some good degree of esemption in our 
■Wwn case, and our happy leisure for the busincsi 
9i^ni;d. Ileasen will show despotic nations, 
,. id old corrupt empires, the difference between 
jlicin, and a land ''shadowing with wings;" a 
Happy asylum of liberty and religion, in the west. 
Can a motive be wanting to induce us to maia- 
n the character implied in this address, and to 
ibcy the injunction of Heaven here urged upon 
(s? Should any say, what can be done ? Let 
SJbis he the reply ; be devoutly disposed and pre- 
pared to obey; and Heaven will, in due time, 
Ipaake the duty plain. By prayer, contributions, 
And your influence, be prepared lo aid every at- 
)tempt for the conversion of Ibe Jews and Israeli 
4od God will be bis own interpreter, and will 
l|nakc the duty plain. 

T A leading stop has already been taken in a Je- 

gasalcm mission. This may prove, in relation 

a fulElnictit of our text, a cloud like a man's 

which shall afford a sound of great rain ; 

■and shall water the hills of ancient Zion. How 

groat effects spring from little causes ! A purling 

atreaoi ftom the threshold of the sanctuary, soon 

mes to the ankles, to the knees, to the loins, to 

I unfordable river, which heak the Dead sea ; 

tek. xlvii. Already has the bulrush vessel alip- 

d from the "land shadowing with wings." across 

..-O mighty waters, over which the prophetic eye 

ftanccd; over the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, 

Y the inouths of the " rivers of Ethiopia,',' and 

has landed her " ambassadors,''^ for a Jerusalem 

misaion 1 Bless the Ijord, O children of Abra- 

L! ham, for this ray of liglit from the land of (he 

bingdown of the sun. This may shed an incip- 

fleutluatre on the noted passage in our cvangeii- 

Ftal prophet. It may prove to the children ol 

rAbraham, in these days of signal phenomena, a 

r morning rising in the west! Lcf us, dear couu- 

l trymen, second this attempt with our interces- 

l isions, our contributions, and our influence. MaV 

ieties formed iu behalf of the Jews, and all 

I'Eolicttations in their onr most fervent 

jpatronage. And God will not fail of fulEUIng by 

Tis his gracious designs. The blessed busioers 

f "will be brought within our reach, and will be ac- 


The ten tribe?, as well as the Jews, belong to 

fihe "nation scattered and pealed, and terrible 

n the beginning." Yea, the stick of Ephraim 

^■is to become one in the hand of the prophet, with 

Itlic stick of the Jews; Ezek. xxxvii. 15. — If iC 

r is a fact, that the aborigines of this '* land shad* 

■owing with wings," are the tribes of Israel, we 

perceive at once what can be done to fulfil the 

noted demand of God, as it relates to them. — 

And all who fear God will leap for joy, that aa 

■ the Jerusalem mission is already under way; so 

t tnissiona to these tribes of Israel are already un- 

I'der way ! 

Let us then, in view of the evidence providen- 
ptially afforded, that we have found the long han- 
clshed tribes of Israel, seat ourselves as at the feet 
Bof Isaiah ; hear him sighing with deep affliction 
^t the long exilement of his brethren of Rrael, 
»nd in vision beholding this land of their banish- 
fment. Hear the Spirit of Inspiration suggesting 
9 his anxious mind ; There is the land, the teiu 


he rone 



exilement of yonr brethren of Israel. There" 
2500 years shall they be an outcast race, till aboi 
the time of the Mes-siah^s kingdom, that dariiiur 
object of your projthccj-. Then their line of 
promised title to their fair inheritance shall lake 
eircct. A great nation ehnll (hei'e be found, at 
that period, whose sequestered realm and peace- 
ful national character, shall alTord a retreat for 
hberly and religion; and shall entitle them (o 
appellation of a " land shadowing with wiiij 
as the form of their contincDt su^ests. Hei 
llie people to nid the restoration both of 
ilisperaeil, and cspeeiully your uvlcaxl brethren" 
Address iliem therefore, and from me assign tlieoi 
their husincss. 

Ho. thou blessed nation of the last days ; pity, 
instruct, and save my ancient people and breth- 
ren ; ojpccially that oitlcasl branch of them, who 
w ere the natives of your soil. Pity that degrad- 
ed remnant of a nation so terrible in ancient 
tiniL'^, hut who have been now so long wretrhed, 
Bring a preseiit of them, ye worshippers of Je- 
hovah, to the God of Abraham. Give not slei 
to your eyes, till a bouse be builded to y 
from tboie ancient and venerable maleriaU.- 
Were not your fathers sent into that far dtstai 
world, not only lo be (in their posterity) built 
■A great protecting nation ; hut also to be the in- 
slrurnenta of gathering, or recovering the miser- 
■ihle remnant of my outcasts there, in the la&] 
days ? Rejoice, then, ye distinguished people ' 
your birthright, and engage in the work by Hea' 
en assigned. Let not tho'e tribes of 
people, whom I have borne as on ea 
iijr so miny a;;ea ; let them not become cxfii 
bcfurc your eyes ; lot them no longer roam 
harbariom and death! Mv boweU 

St for 







led. i 


up 5 


for Ephraim, ray first born. "For since I spaj 
against liiiii, I Jo earnestly rcmcinlier hit 
'* I have seen big ways and will beal bim. 
restore peace to liim, and to bis moun)era; peace 
ill the renewal of my covenant. 1 will again 
bear hira on eagles' wings, and bring him to my- 
self. For you, (my suppliants in the west.) thij 
honour is reserved ;" Zepii. iii. 10. The w' 
of your continent have long borne him in 
banishment. Let now the wings of your Ubi 
compa-isiun, and ble.assd rctriat, hvar him frol 
his dreary wiida to the temple of God. 

Look at tlie origin of those degraded nati' 
of your continent, and lly to their reUef. 
Send them the heralds of snivation. Sei 
llicm the word, the bread of life. Von rer.eii 
ed that book from the seed of Abraham. Ri 
tore it to them, and tbiis double yuur own rl 
inheritance iu its blessings. Learn them to read' 
the book of grace. Learn them itB history and' 
their own. Teach them the story of their an- 
cestors; the economy of Abraham, Isaac and Ja- 
cob. Sublimate their views above fiie savage 
pursuits of the forests. Elevate them above 
wilds of barbarism and death, by showing tin 
what has been done for their nation ; and wf 
is yet to be done by the God of their father 
the line of his promise. Teach them tbeJi 
cieiit history ; their former blessings ; their be- 
ing cast away ; the occasion of it, and the prom- 
ises of their return. Tell them the time draws 
ncar.and they must now return to theGod of their 
salvation. Tell them their return is to be as life 
from tlie dead to the gentile nations. Tel! them 
what their ancient fathers, the prophets, were 
spired to predict in Iheir behalf; and the cliai 
here givcu for llieir restoration. Assure thi 




this iatk of aft ancient brother, is for them, and 
they must listen to it and obey it. That the 
Great Spirit above the clouds now calls them by 
you to come and receive his grace by Christ the 
true star from Jacob, the Shiioh who has come, 
knd to whom the people must be gathered. In- 
form them that by embracing this true seed of 
Abraham, you and fnultitudes of other gentiles, 
have become the children of that ancient patri- 
arch; and now they must come back as youf 
brothers in the Lord. Unfold to them their su- 
perlative line of the entail of the covenant ; that 
*' as touching this election, they are beloved for 
the fathers' sakes ;" that they were for their sins 
excluded for this long period, until the fulness of 
the gentiles be come in, and so all Israel shall be 

Go, thou nation highly distinguished in the 
last days ; save the remnant of my people. — " 
Bring me a present of them " to the place of the 
name of the Lord of hosts, the Mount Zion." 

Note. — I have lately been informed that a Dr. M'Dounald 
has published something on thi^chapler similar to what I have 
written. What his ideas particularly are, I know not, as I 
have never been favoured with a sight of the book, nor seen 
any one who could give any particukir acc^uot of his schemes 


1. It becomes us to be deeply affecteJ with 
i excommunication of the aacicut people of 
God, in the temporary rejection of tliose two 
branches of the Hebrew nation, the truth is sol- 
emnly enforced, that tl;e God of Zion is a God of 
government ; and that he will be known by the 
judgments that he executeth. The casting out 
of the ten tribes for their impious idolatries, is 
full of instruction. The wonders God had done 
for Ihcm, and all their privikges in the laud of 
promise, could not save, when they rejected the 
stated place of his worship, and united in the 
abominations of the open enemies of God. Tbey 
should be hurled from the promised land, and 
abandoned to a state of savage wretchedness, for 
two and a half militnaries. Their sin in those 
dark ages of the old dispensation wits no trifle. 
Its consequence is held up as an awful warning 
to the world. It impresses the following lan- 
guage; " Know thou and see that it is an evil 
thing and bitter that thou hast forsaken the 
Lord." To that event people under evangelical 
privileges ought to Inm their eyes and taie the 
solemn warning. The God of Abraham is a God 

of jtidginent ; while blefsed are all theythat put 
their trust in liim. 

; The judgments of Heaven on the Jews were 

p\[ more drL-aJful. Tbe Lord of Ihut vineyard 
. indeed come in a day when they looked not 

^r him, and in an hour wlien Ihey were i 

aware ; and did cut them astinder. He came 
and miierably destroyed those husbandmen, and 
burned up tlieir cities, as he foretold. Upon 
their turning him olT with hypocrisj and will- 
worship, and rejecting the Saviour, the dcnuncU 
ation, "Cut it down; why cumberelli it the 
ground?" was fultilled with unprecedented de- 
cjgion. Let fill rejectors of Christ, behold and 
tremble. The Jews were confident in a fancied 
security, to the last. But an impious coniidertce 
can never save, It is but a df ad calm before a 
fatal catastrophe. Such presumptuous leaning 
upon the Lord, and saying, '■ Is not the l^ord 
among us ? no e^il t'hall come upon us ;" was go 
far from saving, that it was a sure precursor of 
perdition, and of the coming of wrath upon Ihent 
to the uttermost. Let gospel rejectors beware. 
" Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish." 
" Let him that thinketh be staudeth, take heed 
lest he fall." 

2. How evidtnl and rich is the entail of the 
corenaEit which will recover llie two branches of 
the house of Israel! Truly they are "a nation of 
fine, line ;" (Isai. xviii. 2, in the Hebrew, and 
margin of the great Bible.) Thou-;h they be in- 
lidels, and rejected, and as touching the gospel 
are enemies for oar sakes ; yet as touching Ihv 
election, (the entail of the covenant,) they are 
beloved for the fathers' sakcs; Rom. xi. 2G. — 
This entail ensures their ingrafling again into 
their own oiivc tree, which shall be as Mfe from 
the dearl to the nations. This is the infulliblc 
hold upon them, which shall finally recover them 
ai^ain to Palestine, and to the covenant of their 
God. It is upon this covenant-hold upon them, 
that tlie God of Abraham promises to take away 
their stony heart out of their fleih. and give Ihera 

135 tT 

ahenrt of flesh; to aprinkle (hem willi clcnn wa- 
ter, and to make them citan ; to iiut his Spirit 
within them and cause tlicm to wsilk hi his ?lat- 
ules. and make them keep hia judgments nnd do 
them ; Ezck. xxxvi. 24 — 27. Il is upon llda en- 
tail, that God thus engages to bring them iu im- 
der liis new covenant, or the Christian dj^pensa- 
tion; that their children sliall be as aforetime?, 
and their congregations establielied before hmi; 
and "that all who see them shall acknowledge 
tlicy are the seed which the Lord halh blessed;" 
"that they are tlie seed of the blesBcd of the 
Lord, and" their offspring with Ihcin." It will 
then he understood, that though blindness in part 
had happened to Israel, it was that the gentiles 
might take their place, and only till the fulness 
of tbe gentih'S be conic in ; and then all Israel 
Bhail be flaved. The Jewish church will tlicncc 
be kind of capital and wiorfc/ of tbe Chnstinn 
world; see laai. Ik. 1 — 5; and many other prom- 
ises of the same tenor. 

The cnlail of the covenant may he expected 
thenceforth to have its proper and perfect eilcct 
in the fulfilment of such promises as the follow- 
ing, which relate lo that jeriod ; " 1 will pour 
my Spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon 
thine offspring; and they shall ^'pring up »& 
among the ^rasa, as wiliowi by the water conrfr- 
es ; Isai. xliv. H, 4. "As for mc, this is my co^ 
enant with them, sailh the Lord. IVIy -ipiril tl 
is upon Ihec, and my words n liirh I have put 
thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy ntouth, 
out of the mouth of thy seed, not out of 
mouth of thy sccd^a seed, sailli the Lord, 
henceforth and forever;" hai. liv, 21. 
irtU indeed bring a season of salvation to 


3. On reading the prophetic scriptures rela- 
tive to the restoration of the Hebrews, and the 
calls of Heaven to aid in the event ; the ques- 
tion becomes interesting, What is first to be done 
relative to this restoration ? The first object, no 
doubt, must be, to christianize them, and wait 
the ieadings of Providence relative to any fur- 
ther event. God will in due time, be (to all who 
are willing to wait on him) his own interpreter; 
and to such he will make the path of duty plain. 
In his own time and way, after his ancient peo- 
ple shall be duly instructed, and taught the Cnrisr 
tian religion, God will open the door for the ful- 
filment of his designs relative to any local resto- 
ration ; and will briAg that part of them, whom 
he designs, to their ancient home. All the Jews 
did not return to Palestine from their seventy 
years captivity. Many chose to continue where 
they were planted in the east. Something of the 
same may be realized in the final restoration of 
Judah and Israel. God will take one of a Jami- 
/y, and two of a city^ and bring them to Zion ! A 
proportion of that nation will in due time be of- 
fered, to return to the land of their fathers, 
where they may form a kind of centre or capital 
to the cause of Christ on earth. Relative to 
many particulars of the event, the holy oracles 
have not expressed. They have strongly mark- 
ed the outlines or leading facts of the restora- 
tion ; and the unrevealcd particulars, the events, 
of Providence must unfold. That great num- 
bers will return, there seems not room to doubt. 
But the actual proposition to return, will doubt- 
less be a free-will offering of those whose hearts. 
God shall incline. The first duty must be to re- 
cover them to the visible kingdom of Christ. To 

Tltt$ our prarcrs, alms, aod all due excitions must 
devoutly teud. 

4. Viewing (lie aborigines of America as the out- 
east tribes of Israel ; au iDterestiiig view is given 
f)f some prophetic passages, which appear Dear- 
ly connected with tticir restoration. 

In Uai. xl. 3, relative to this restoralioD of the 
ancient people of God, we read ; '• The voice of 
him that crieth in the wUdentfss; Prepare ye Iho 
way of the Lord ; make straight in tlie desart 
biph way for our God."' This received s pritni 
ry and typical fulfilment in the ministry of J< 
the Baptist, in the wilderness of Judea, to intro>' 
duce Christ. Hence the passage was applied to 
bim. But it was to receive its ultimate and most 
interesting fulfilment at a period connected with 
the commencement of Ihe Millennium, when "tlie 
glor)' of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh 
shall see it together;" as the subsequent text 
decides. It is intimately connected with the 
restoration of the Hebrews ; as appears in its 
context. " Comfort ye, Comfort ye, my people, 
eaith your God. Speak je comfortably to Jeru- 
salem, (a name here put for all the Hebrew fam- 
ily, as it was Iheir capital in the days of David 
and Solomon.) and cry unto herlhather warfare 
is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned ; 
for she hath received of tlie Lonl's hand double 
for all her sins." Here is the final Hebrew res- 
toration, after the time of their doubly long cor- 
rective rejection for their sins shall have cjcpii^ 
ed. The voice in the wildcmcsB then foUowi, 
as the great means of this restoration. 

A wilderness has justly been considered as ft 
symbol of a region of moral darkness and spirit- 
ual death. It has been considered ae a symbol 
df ttic heathen world ; and it is a striking em- 

e of 

!lhe I 

rt ab^H 



d to I 

bleni ol" it. And Uie emblem receives BlrengUi 
from the CO II si (le ration, tliat it is in a sense Hter- 
nlly true. The voice, which restores Israel, iB 
henrd in the vmt wilderness of .America, a litet^l 
wilderness of thousands of miles, where the drj" 
bones of the outcasts of Israel have for thoii- 
sands of years been scattereil. The voice crjing 
Jn the wilderness has a special appropriation to 
these Hebrews. Aa it had a kind of literal ful- 
fiiment in the preaching of the foreninher John, 
for a short time in the wilderness of Jiidca ; so it 
is to have a kind of literal fulfilment, upon a 
much greater scale, in the missions, wlu'ch stiall 
recover the ten tribes from the vast wilderness 
of America. 

Of the same period and event, the same eran- 
gelical prophet swys, Isai. nxxv. 1. "The wil- 
derness and the solitary place shall be glad for 
Ihem ; and the desert shall rejoice and lilossom 
as the rose ; it shall blossom abundantly and 
frejoice even with joy and singing. The gfory of 
C^bniion shall be given unto it, and the excrf* 
tenc^- orCtirmcl and Sharon ; they shnll see the 
gfoiy of the Lord and the esceilcrcy of ouf 
Oud.'* Th such passages, while the predictfon 
is to have its mystical and full accomplishment 
fe the conversion of the heatkrn u-orUl to God; 

I !fhc prophetic eye evidently rested with s^al 
Sfleasiire, on a literal restoration of his long lost 
I involved in llie event, and as for- 
HAhingthe ground of the figure. Thi-i/ will be 
"Urultij, and the fulness of the gentiles mf/stief^ 
}b, restored and brought to Zion. • ■* 

As the wilderness of JVidea in a smaU d^^ife 

Efejoiced and blossomed as, the rose, when ^hn 

[■"the Baptist performed his minislry in it : 

nlden>etia and solitary place of u 


va^ t 

, coataiiiiog tbe lost tribes aC the house of 
_JJraeI, will, on a most enlarged scale, rejoice 
and blossom as the rose, when the long lost ti'ibca 
shall be found there, atid shall be gathered to 
Zioa. The event m relutiya to those ancient 
heirs of the covenant, stated in tho last verse of 
this chapter, will Chen receive asignal fuUilmenlv 
"And the redeemed of the Lord shall return and 
come to Zion with songs and cvcrlastiog joy up- 
on their heads ; Uiey shall obtain joy and giarl- 
i:esB, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away." 
Upon this final restoration of his brethren, this 
prophet csuits in lofty strains. Several of the 
many of these strains snail be here inserted. Isni, 
xlix. "Listen O isles unto mei (or ye laDil^away 
over the sea) hearken ye people from n/ar. I 
will makeall my mouutatns away ; and my high 
way shall be exalted. Behold these siiall come 
from far; and lo, these from the north, and from 
the tarsi ; and these from the land of Sinim, — 
Sing. O heavens ; and be joyful, O earth ; and 
break forth into singing, O mountains ; for tho 
Lord hath comforted his people, and will have 
mercy upon his aiflicted." S\^ texts have a 
special allusion to the lost tfibes of the house of 
Israel. And their being called over mountains, 
and over seas, from the west, and from afar, re- 
ceives an emphasis from the consideration of 
their being gathered from the vast wilds of Amer- 

With the prophet Hosea, the rejection and ri 
covery of the ten tribes are a great object. I 
chapter 2d, their rejection, and the cause of | 
are stated, and also a promise of tlieir rctiin 
tjod threatens to strip tl»em naked, and "'ir 
lliem as a atiWcrncss." "And I will visit ii_ 
ber the days of BaaUm, wherein she butned'i 

I cense to them;" i.e. to her fiilse god^. This 
Tifiting upon licr her idolatries, was to be done 
in hep suDseqiient outcast stale, in which God 
Iherc soys; "she is not my wile, neither ami 
her husband." But he says, v. 1 4 — "Therefore, 
tchold, ] will allure her, and bring her into llie 
wilderness, and speak comfortably unto her. — 
And I will give her her vineyards from thence,ancl 
the valley of Achor for a door of hope j and she 
shall sing there as in the days of her youth, and 
as in the day when she came up out of the land 
«f 5^pt." Here is Israel's restoration ; and it 
is from the wilderness, where long they had been 
planted during the period of their outcast state. 
In this wilderness, God eventually speaks com- 
fortably to them, and restores them, as he restor- 
ed from Egypt. Here God gives them "the val- 
ley of Achor for a door of hope." The first 
encampment of the Hebrews in the valley of 
Achor, was to them a pledi^e of their eventual 
possession of the promised land, after the Lord 
had there turned from the fierceness of his wrath j 
Josh. vii. 26. 

Upon the same event God says; Isai. sliii. 19, 
20 ; •' Behold 1 %ill do » new thing ; now it shall 
spring forth ; shall ye not know it ? I will even 
make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in (he 
desert. The beasts of the field shall honour 
me; the dragons and the owls ; because I give 
water in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, 
to give drink to my people, to my chosen." If 
such texts have a glorious, general, mystical ful- 
tilment in the conversion of pagan lauds ; yet 
this does not preclude, hut mther implies the 
fact, that the people whose restoration is in them 
particularly foretold, shall be recovered from a 
vast wilderness; aad their conversion shall he 


almost like the conversion of dragons »nd ov 
of the desert. Rivers of knowledge and gru 
slial] in such wilds be opened for God^a chosen 
If will Iheo truly be fulfilled, that God in con 
forting Zion, will "make her wilderness like Ed* 
and her desert like Ihe garden of the 1 
Isai. li. 3. Such pasSages will have a degree q 
both literal and nfiystical fulfilmeut. 

A signal beauty will then be discovered in 31 
passages as the following ; Isai. xli. 14. " f 
not, lliou worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel ; 
will help tliee, saith the Lord God, thy Redeet 
CI-, the Holy One of Israel. I will open rivei 
in the hi^h places, and fountains in the midst 
vallies: Twill make the wilderness a pool of w 
tcr, and the dry land springs of water. 1 w 
plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shiltah 
ircc, and the myrtle, and Ihe oil tree; and I will 
set in the desert the fir tree, the pine, and ihe 
box tree togeihor, that they may 6ce aud know 
and understand togellier, that the hand of the 
Lord hath done lliis. and the Holy One of Israel 
bath created it." The view given of the place • 
of the long bani^hmctit of the ten tribes, gives a 
Instie to such predietions of their restoration. — 
These wilt have a striking fulfilment in the vast 
wilds of our continent, when the glad tidings' of 
salvation shall be carried to the natives of thcic 
cjlensive dreary forests, and those regions of 
Wretchedness and death shat^Cecome vocal with 
tbc high praises of God, sung by his ancient Is- 

5. If it he a fact that' the native Americans 
arc the Iflhes of Israel, new evidence is hence 
furnished vt the divinity of our holy scriptures. 
A new field of evidence is here opened from a 
race of men. "outcast" from all tivil societyfor 

a. long courao of centuries. Impressed on the^c 
wild tenants of the forCKt, ^these children of na- 
ture, without books or letters, or ati^ thing b\it 
savage tradition,) Btrikiug characters are fouod of 
the tfuib of ancient revelation. 

The intelligent vindicator of the word of God 
liHS never feai-cd to meet the infidel on fair 
Xi'ound. His triumph has not been less certain 
tliao that of David agiiinsi Goliab. But in the 
view taken of the natives of our continent* 
the believer will find additional arguments, in 
which to triumph. He will diid more than "five 
nnoolh stones tuken out of the brook," {1 Sam. 
XVI. 40,) each one of which is sufficient to sink 
into the head of an impious Gotiah, ctiallengtng 
ihe God of Israel. 

Let the unbeliever in revelations undertake 
LU answer the following questions. 

Whence have the greater part of the American 

iiutivc9 been taught the being of one and only 

one God ; when all other heathen nations have 

- IpAt all such knowledge, and believe in inaritf 

^ Jalse gods ? 

Whence Iiave the Indians, or piost of them, 
been kept from gross idolatry, which has covered 
ihc rest of the heathen world ? and to which all 
men have been so prone ? 

Whence have manv of them been taught that 
the name oftheone God. the Great Spirit above, 
is yohemah, Ah, Yah, (Hebrew names of God,) 
who made all things, luid to whom alone wor- 
ahipisdue ? 

Who taught any of fhrm that God, at first, 
made one man from earth; foi-med him well ; 
and breathed him into life ? and that God made 
f;ood ajid l>ad spirits ; the latter lif whom havt 
•durincc •!?« lUctn ': 

Wlicncc was the idea among these untutored 
savages, that Vohewah was once the covenant 
God of their nation ; and the rest of the world 
were out of covenant with Uini, — the accurecd 
people ? 

Whence tlicir ideas that their ancestors once 
had the book of God ; and then were h;ippy ; 
but th^it they lost it; and then became Diiserablc; 
hut that tUe/ will have this book a)^ain at come 
time ? 

Whence their notion that their fathers once 
had the Spirit of God to work miracles, and to 
forelel future events ? 

Who tau^it the untutored savage to have a 
temple of lohewah ; a holy of holies in it, into 
which no common people may enter, or look ? 

Who taught him a succession of UigU priests > 
that this priest must be inducted into oAice by 
purilicatioiM, and anointing 7 that he must appear 
in an appropriate habthment, the form «f which 
descended from Iheir fdlherH of remote antitpiity ? 

Whence tlieir custom of lliis priest's making 
a yearly atonement, in or near the holy apart- 
ment of their temple 1 

Whence tlieir three annual feasts, which well 
accord to the three great fcu^ls in I&mei i 

Wheitce came their peculiar feast, in which a 
bone of the sncrjfico niAy not be broken ; and all 
ihht is pi'cpared must be eaten ; or burned before 
tile next morning sun ? 

Whence a custom of tlieir males appearing 
three times annually before God at Uie temple .' 

Who taught wildsavagcs of thed^sert to main- 
tain places of refuse from the avciigeiof b' 
'*. oid, Ittiovtd, while towns .^'J 

Who taught Ibcm to Itecp and venerate a 
credai-k, cou^utuug tbcir mosteacrod 1' ' 

io be borne againBtlheir oncmie* by one pnrified 
by strict rifes ?— ^Tliat no onte but tb^ Sanctified 
Itepper might look into this ark ; ami ihp entim^ 
fecttrtg (he ssme'reTcrence for it, a^ the friemls ? 

Whence catne Ihe deep ami (extensive impreF<- 
inn among Iheac savage IribeS, that the hollmv of 
the thish of no aminiil may be eaten ? 

Ijet the infulel inform how these sSTages (sO 
long exchided from all intercourse witK the reli- 
gious or civilized world) came by the rite of cir- 
dnmciBidn ? and some of them an idea of a Ju- 
biW' ? _ " ' ' 

Whence their idea of an old divine fjTfech ; 
that thpy must imrtate their virtuous ancestors, 
(MiforceJ by •' flourishing upon a land ffowing 
w ith milk and honey ?" 

Wheacft their ti«fion of the aiicicnt flood ? and 
ofthe lortgevity of the ancients ? also of the con- 
fnaion of the langTra;;e of man at buildings higb 
plaee? Evidently meaning the scene at Babet. 

How came these wild human herds of the de- 
sert by various Hebrew teords, and phtiis'.s ,- and 
such jihrasesos accord with no other language on 
fiarth ? Set Ihe table furmsihed,pnge 90. 

Who taii|ht'them to sing. Hallelnph, Yrfhe- 
wah. Yah, Hiilu Yohewah ; and to make Hie ra- 
ered ui-e they do ofthe ?yHahles, which compose 
the names of Gdd ? eingingthemin their reli- 
gions chmtes. and in thfflr cnsjoms ; thuF ascrilr- 
in;^ all the praise to Yohewab ? I ask not, wfn) 
fciit;^lit them the spirit or holiness' of suctiroU- 
gious forms ? For probably Ihcy fnve little or 
no iittclligent meaning. But whence have iUej 
broti^hl drnun lliesc trdditi'imal forms ? 

How came their reckoning of lime =o ircll ("(> 
accord with that of aucif nt Israel '' 

Whence their tradition of twelve men, iu prepM 
ingTora I'eaatsimilurtu tlieaocient feast of tabei 
iiaclcs; takiiij^ twelve poles, formiiig their bootlisj' 
and their allar of twelve stones, on which iio tool 
may pass ; and here offeriny their twelve sacri- 
fices ? and some tribes proceeding l>y the number 
(en instead of hoehe .' indicating their tradition 
of the l-Jieloe tribes / and their subsequent ttvi, 
after the revolt. 

WTience came their tradiliott of purifying them* 
selves with bitter vegetables ? ulso fasting, and 
purifying themsclvca, when going to war ? 

Who taught thein that at deatli their beloved 
people sleep, mid go to their ilithers ? 

Vvhence their cuatunt of washing and anoint- 
ing their dead ; and some of them of hiring 
niourncrs to bewail them ; and of singing round 
the corpse (before ihey bury if) the syllables of 
Yah, Yohewah ? 

How came they hy their tradition answerin( 
to file ancient Jewish separations of v 
also a tradition of taking their shoes from th« 
&et, on solemn occasions '! 

Whence were some of them taught in det 
B)Ou ruing to lay their hand on their mouth, ! 
t|teir mouth in the dust ? 

And whence came their tradition of their an 
cieiit fal/ur with his hodve sons, ruhng ovtj 
tttbei's ? and the malconduct of these twelvf 
SORB, till they lost their pre-eminence ? 

Let it be remembered, it is not pretended 
ill the savages arc in the practice of all these U 
dilions. They are not. But it is contended tl 
the whole of these things have been found ^ 

their dilTerent tribes in our continent, tvithin a 
hundred years. A fragment of these Hebrew 
tradilioaa has been fvuiid among o»e inbe ; and 



another fragment among nno/ZiT.- andsomeofttie 
uiost striking of these Irnditiona iiave been found 
among Various and very distant liibes; tis has ap- 
peared in Hie recital from various authors, tra- 
ders and travellers. 

Let the mibeliever in revelation set himself to 
•ccount for these events. No account can be 
given of them, bat that they were derived from 
ancient revelation in Israel. And hence id Ihe 
dutcast state of the ten tribes of Igrael, (id their 
Iiuy;e valley of dry bones, in this vast new world,) 
we find presented a volume of new evidence of 
the divitiily of the Old Testament; and helice 
of the New ; for the lalter rests on the former, 
as a building rests on its foundation. If the one 
is divine; Ihe other is divine; for both forma 
perfect whole. 

We arc assured by Ihe chief apostle to the 
gentilps, thttt the restoration of the ancient people 
of God in the last days, when " all hrad ehtcll 
ie lanerf," shall be to the nations " o's life from 
tht i/mrf;" Rom.^i. 15. Its new and detiwn- 
stratTve evidence of the glorious truth of revela- 
tion, will confound in^deiity itself ; and 611 the 
■*orM with light-amJ gtory. These Indian tradi- 
tions may be viewed as beginning to exhibit to 
the world their luota of this new evidence. 

The earthquake, at the time ofour Savior's giv- 
imj up of the ghost, which rent the rocks, may be 
said thus to Iwvc opened many mouths (perhaps 
over the face of the earth) tacitly to proclaim 
(hf event. It may be said in figure ; — " The 
stones cried out !" (Luke xix. 40.) In onr sub- 
ject, we find a powerful correspondiog evidence 
of the truth of revelation, extending through a 
wild continent, in savage tiaditions ; which tra- 
ditions must nave been bronght down from 755^ 
yearii before the Christian era. 


The prc5cnr,\t:on of iho Jt w<. a< a o\:i:uKi 
peopie, for eighteen cenuirio5» Iws Uncii ju$li^> 
Tiewed as a kind of standing: nuncle in $uptH^rt 
of the tmth of levelation. Lmic iht^ »r>iunirnt$ 
ftumished Unom the pr^sinathm. and /fi9<^i>iVm;p ^4' 
the ten tribes, in the wiids of Ann^rica fnw^ a 
much longer period, must be vio^vod as fornifh- 
ing. if possible, a more commaiHhn«:t tostinu>n y« 
Aiid it is precisely such e^-idenco a$ n>ust Ivave 
been expected in the loi^g outcast tnln^s of ls« 
rael, whenever they should come to li^^ltt ; ;uul 
just such evidence as must rationally Ih^ expected 
to bring tliem to the knowledge ot^ the civilixed 

The evidence discovered among the variotis 
tribes of Indians, of the truth of theirllohivw 
extraction, and of the divinity of the Old Tes- 
tament, seems almost like fmJing, in the various 
regions of the wilds of America, various scraps 
of an ancient Hebrew Old TesUtmnit ; — one iu 
one wild; another in another; insrrihrd on Homc 
durable substance in evident FIchrcw lnngutii;c 
and character, though much defaced by the lai)t<e 
of ages. Surely such an event, when nUended 
with concomitant evidence that it could bo no 
imposition, must silence the unbeliever in ancient 
revelation ; and add a new and powerful item 
to the evidences already furnii^hed upon ho in- 
teresting a subject. The evidence, actnully fur- 
nished in the traditions of the savages of Ame- 
rica, suggest the suppositions ju8t made; hut arc 
of a far more substantial character. It in con- 
tended that they furnish the very evidence, l<M»g 
desired, of the existence, and present state of iUr. 
ten tribes of Israel. 

^HS Rov. Dr. Morse in hij report of hia tonr amoog the 
InJians at the vest, made under cmnmisEiaii from oui gov- 
crameot, in 18^ to aseertiio the actuol atate of the Indians 
in our couulry, myi i " It is matter of surprise, that the lo- 
diDQi. eitUDted> as the; have been for so man; sucrassive eges 
■ud geoBrntions, without boolo or toowledge of letters, or of 
Ihe art of reading or writing, should have preserved their 
tbHous languages in the manner Ihey have done. Many of 
Ihcm Bra copious, capable of regular grammatical nnalysiS) 
posscai great strength, groecfuln ess, and beauly of expre?>ioD. 
TliRy ate higlilj' metaphorical in their chamcler ; and in thJt 
aud other res|iecb resemble the Bebreiv. This resemblanoe 
in the language, and the sunilarity of ninny of their reli- 
gioiu cuatoms, &c. to tliose of the Jeai, certainly give plausi' 
bility to the iugenioua theory of Dr. Boudind, exhibited in 
hia inlereiting work, entiUed " T/it Star in Ike Wttl." A 
bitliful and thnrnugh eXBminalion ofthe Various language] 
of the Indian tribes, wonUl probably show that there are very 
few of Ibem Ihnt are Ihroughoat radically difie rent.— The 
dilTflreacei of these languageB ate mostly differences of 

The various Indian tribes visited by Dr. Mor^e, had their 
Great Spirit. Speaking of the manners and cuetomsof Ihe 
Sauk^ FoK tribe, [■attowaltatnies,iuid cthers.he nys : "Other 
feasts to the Great Spirit are frequently made by these lu- 
diaoB." Of one of these feasts, he says ; "They seat them- 
selves in a cirde on the ground ; — when one of the guests 
plnces before each person a wooden buvrl with his portion of 
tliB fea^t, and Ibey commence eating. When each man's 
portion is eaten, the bonet are coUeoted and put into a wood- 
en bowl, and thrown into the fiver, or burnt. The whole 
of theleut must be eaten. If anyonecannot eat bis part of 
il, he passes hU dish, with a piece of tobacco to bis neighbi 
and he eali it j aal Ihe guests then retire. Those who m. 
tlie feast never eat any partof it themjelves. They say |] 
give their part of it to the Great Spirit" Here seems m 
ifeitlylhesioiefeut noted by other authors among other ! . 
dilTeretit tribes in Ihe diScrent parts of the coDtineat, and 
probably antwerbg to the passover in auciem biul. The 



rerenl and diEtnnt tribes have lh< 

; while yet certain (Lings iiiilii:ate tlisl Uielewlisa 
ik«n tradition of the passover. 

tnoLher tradition from a Hebrew rile th? Doctor statea. 
Bays : " The -women of these nalioiu are yery particiil&r 
from their lodges to one erected for that particular 
'toar|i0B«, at Buoh bcbbous as were custoinarilr obseivedby 
Jewish women, acoordiug to the law of Mos^i, No aj^cle 
ef furiuture over uied in Ihit lodge, is everate^ >a 'oy oilier; 
Dot evoD the steel and tlie flint nitJi which tbej !lr>ka fits, 
ffo muD HpprOBchea this lodge, while u wumsa occupies it.'' 
Tho existence of thii es.teniii'e Indian rite is fully Hscerlaip- 
ed. And of its origin, (here ajipearabat very littleroomto 

This writer eayt : "Tho belief of Ihew Indians relaliTefs 
(heir creation is not very iiulihe our owu, Mnico, one of 
(he chiefs of the Sauk", informed me, that Ibey believed that 
(he GreiLL Spirit in the lint place, crenleil Ironi Ihtilustof 
(he earth two men; but findii^ that ^escalone would not 
answer his purpose, betook from each man a rib, andmada 
two women." Of the descendant! of these two pair, th*y 
Bay, " that they were all one iiatioE, until Ihey behaved so 
badly, that the Great Spirit came DlnoDg them, and talked 
different ianeungee to them ; which caused ihem lo leparsts 
anil form different nalioos." Here are manifest broken frsg- 
mentf of Motes' history of creation, and ofthe confufiou of 
trnguage at Bubel. " I asked (^ays Dr. M.) how tbey sop- 
*- Md white men were made ; He replied that Indiana ftUp- 

led the Great Spirit made (hem of the fine duit of (ha 
■■■ ■' 'mow more than Indians." Dr. M. gives as 

r holding lo a future ilate ; and In some ltii)da 
of reward for the good, and of punish menls for the Wicked. 

He iulorms from s Mujoi Cummings, thai the Indians al« 
very mspiciom nfsome evil intent, when questioned by tUa 
Americans ; and that there is no way to obtain a ful3 Imoih 
ledge uf their traditions and ways, but by a longresideneate 
their country. This may account forthe fact thai Iheirtra- 
dilioDs (which seems manifestly Hebrew) were kept so long 
and to so great a degree, from Uie kuowledgc of our people. 

Relative l« their manner of transnotin' their public buai- 

nen, they informed Dr. M. " We open our council by smuk- 

' pipe selected for the occasion ; and we address the bd- 

thruugh B speaker chosen for the purpose ; first in- 

the Great Spirit to inspire us with wistlnm. We opeit 

lucil in the name of the Crest Spirit, and close with 


«I#8yt sacrifice in order to ohlBJti thi. gond will of the Great 
Spirit. And adds: "There are no people more frequent or 
fervent io'their acliDolFledgementsof graliludeto God. Their 
"' " ' * 'isia ia oniveraal ) aoil their cauGdeace aaloaiihinglr 


The question continually reoan, wheaoo came things like 
tbese amoog the satires of our ooatinent, or the American 
eavases, unless Uiefie savages are the very tribes uf Urncl.' 
Ro evidence is furniBheil that such a variety of Hebrew rites 
19 found amaD^ nay other people on earth, except the Jena. 
And it geeras mnrally imposaible they ehoiilil have derived 
Ihem from any other source, than the ancient Hebrew reli- 

Mr. Schoolcraft, a member of Ihe \ew-Torlt Historical 
Society, (in hia JournKla of travob among Ilie western Indians, 
round and beyond the western lakes, and \o the mouth of the 
Mi^sissipiii, in 1830,) gives some acoounl!, which conSrm 
tome of the In jian traditions already exhibited. He speaks 
of attending a feast among the Sioux Indianii; afeaatof the 
Unt gnea ooru. Ha Hiys ; *■ Oar altenlioa vns now drawn 
off by the sound of InJiaa muiic which proceeded from an- 
other Urge cabin nt no ^reat distance ; hut wo found the 
doors closed, and were informed that they were celebrating 
an anminl feast, at which only certain persoiu in the villag* 
were allowed In be present ; and that it was not oiutomary 
to admit slrangen. Our curiosity being elicited, we applied 
to the govenmr, Cass, lo intercede for us; end were liy that 
means admitted. The first striking ohjecl presented wns, 
two large kettles full of green corn, cut from the cob and 
boiled. They him^ over a moderate Gre in the midst of the 
aabin ; and the Indian-, both men and women, were Mated 
in a large circle around them. They were singing a di.lcful 
song in a savage manner. The utmost solamnity wd9 depic- 
ted Upon every oountenanos. When the muiio oeaiej, as it 
frequently did for a few seconds, there wat a full and myste- 
rious panse, during which certain iiaatomintie signa were 
mnde; and it appeared as if they pretended to bold oammun- 
ion with invisible spirits. Suddenly the muiic struck np^ 
but as we did not understand Iheit langua|e, it ia imjioaBibla 
to lay what they uttered, or to whom their supplications or 

"" iddrer-eJ. When the ceremony neaped, one 

Ian; divided nut nil Iho boiled com into sepa- 
I many heads of femilies as there were pr^- 



potlin^ KQ equil number of ladtes full into each Jifl'. — 

1 while the mutic I'antiuueiJ, Ihey oue by ono took u^ 

fhctr dishea, uid rotiriag from tlje cubin by a backwanl llefu 

' ' Ihey still rao** the keltic?, they srpariilttl to their rta- 

lodges; aod thus the ceremony ceaicil." 

writsruyB, "The Indians believed in the «si>tel]ce of 

greut iDTiiible Spirit, who resides in the regioos uf the 

cloudi.HDd by maaiu of inlerioT epiritsthro 

7 part 

is manilB, «hic3b he ab> 
iCFDg all the tribe* exleiid- 
» of Ibe Miwii^ppi; and 
■ B arctic regions." This 

Their word for spirit, he say! 

lerres, " rignifies the jame thing i 

' g from the Arkansuw to the torn 

cording to M'Renzie, throughni 

OrJtMr. 9. remariu.with many ctherj.itrenglheDE theopi 
O "of which (he sbjb) (here appears ample grounds, that 
ie emilic Iribei of the norih-weatcm region, and of the val- 
t% uf the Miisi^iippi, are all dcjccnded from oiit ilock, wbith 
(^presTiBied to hare progressed from Ihe north toward the 
'rath, scattering mtodiSerant Iribus, and falling from the pu- 
"y of Rlanguage, which may originilly have been rich and 
" Here ia good testimony lo fomc of tlie points, ad- 
this work, viz. that Bit the ladiaas are from one or- 
n; nlloriginBllyDfonclsngUH^e; nil from U^e norlh-iveBl, 
> straits of lieering, leading from tlie nur ill- east of Asia lo 
« Dorlh-weetof Amierica. 

These Indian], Mr. S. informs, " have their good anti had 
.or spirits. The Old Tcilnnieut iuforuis of holy 
d of Mien angels. 
—f Mr. S. speaks uf the beit of anthers allowiQg that great 
tfemiptions hare crept into the Indian language ; and that 
'enarlB of some upoo Itie supposed poverty of the Un- 
'e of these AmerJcsnE, are very incorrect. 
le speaks of lomo of the Inilinns as looking: to the peopI« 
of our stales for aid, and soys, a couneil which he atteniUd 
WiUi the Snndy Lake ludiaoE, thus clos ej ) ~ The AmericniU 
(meaning the United States) are ■ great people. Can it be 
possible they will allow us lo suffer .'" 

The Rer. Lemuel Haynes iufonns, that about 60 years 
Bgo. he was living in Granville, Mass. A mioisler by the 
jlanM of Ashley, called on an aid deacon, with whom be was 
"lying, being on hi> way from a miuiuu among the Indiana in 
west, where he had been a coDaideraLle time. Air. Aih- 
italed his cDDliileDt belief that the Indians were the li- 
ites ; for he eaid there were many tlungs in thair oiaouen 
^d customs, which were like those of ancient Israel. Vari- 
JSns of tliese be stated. Mr. JIayues being tlien a boy, doe( 
now recollect them. But the people he mentions as be- 
, impresEcd willi Ihe accounts ; and the good old dcft 
ig spake of thua iritit much interest. 

Id d«wa ^ II 

A bcolhsr miniiter inrorms me that hU fathpr wu b lieo* 
tenant in the reTolulioaary wsr, anil was tuDg antoDg the !□- 
dlaasi ami that he bet^tne n Arm believer that the Indiaae 
were \he tea tribes o( Umel from Iheir tradiliooa and rites ; 
Tuioua of which be iiaeil to state ; but nhich the miniater 

The most important eviJence in relation to the Indisna 
being the deiceodnntB orl^rael, the reailenrill perceive, is 
James Adair, Eaqr. Recnllect tie had lived among them aa an 
intelli^Ql Iraiier, 4D years. — That hia character was well 
established i and hia accounts well authenticated by coUa- 
taral OTidence, by a gBntlemao, member of congrcM, who hail 
resided a number of jears as an ageot a[ our govermnent a- 
mong those Indians where Mr. Adair resided. Dr. BouJinot 
siaurei us that he examined thia congrecs member, without 
kttin; him know his design ; and that frnm him he fbunil all 
the leuiting facts mentjoncd in Mr. Adair'a history fully con- 
firmed from hia own penanal knowledge. [Set pagt B3d of' 

1 think it Iherefure deaimble, that the reader shonld see 
more fully Mr. Adair's arguments, as found in hia book ; 
and a few additional exlracta from hie work in support of 
Ihpm. He stales his sentiment on the subject thus : ** From 
the moit exact observation that I could make in the long 
time I traded among the Indian Americans, I was forced to 
believe them lineally descended from the Israelites." He 
argues thai Ihoae of Ihe ten tribes from wham (he American 
Indiana descended, must soon have removed from that part of 
Assyria, where they were lodged, and probably reached this 
il previous to the Babylonish captivity of the Jews. 
rgumonla that the natives of Ihia continent are of the 
eaareaa follows, l.Theirdividon intotrtbes. S. Their 
iiship of Jehovah. 3. Theiruotionof alheocrocy. 4. Their 
,.lief in the ministralioD of angels. S. Their language ami 
rOUecL*. 6. Their mBonBT of FOuntinK time. 7. Thait 
prophets and high priests. 8. Their featival^ Casts, and reli- 
gious rites. 9. Their ditily sacrifice. 10. Their ablutions 
and anoinlia's. 11. Their laws of uncteanneas. IC liwir 
' Lence from unclean things. 13. Their marriages, di- 
s, and punishments of adultery. 14. Their several pun- 
aOa. 15. Theirciliea of refuge- 16. Their purificationi 
prepanitoiy ceremonies. 17. Their ornaments. 18. Theif 
"ir •r curmg the aick. 19. Their burial oflheir dead, 
heir mouniing Tor their dead. 91. Their raising seed 
• deceased brother. 32. Their change of names ajaptetl 
plheiicircaajstBUCGsanil times. 33. Their own traditions ; 
Vc accounts of English writers ! and the testimonies given 
V Spanuh and otiier writer) of the primitife inllitbilBiit* of 
■*~— ff and Pero, 



Same of his iUiiatratioiu or Iheie arfumenls tvill be Ii«m 
■ubjoinedio hUowDHiirtls Under the lit argument. '• A» 
the nation hath its particular symbol, so each tribe, the badge 
from which it it deaomiRatekl. The iBchem of ench tribe ia 
B uecei!Brf jiarlj in oonTeyaiiceti, aad treaties, to wbich he 
affix™ tha mark of hii tribe. If we go from aatioD to natioa 
among them, we shall not find one, who Joth not lineaUy dis- 
tidgaiih hinuelf by his respective family. The genealogitiel 
names, wbich they assiimo, are ilerivcJ either from the name 
of those SDtmal!, whereof the chGrubimg arcbaid inrevelatioD 
to ba compouodeiUorfromEUcb creatures as are most familiar 
lo Ihem. The Iniliaas, however, bear no roligious retiwot to 
the animal! from whence they iletite their names. On Iha 
contrary, they kill them when opportunity serves. When 
we consider that theae savages have been abnve Iwtnly cen- 
turies without the use ofleltera to carry down their Iraditions, 
it CUDDOt rsaionably be expected that they Bhou]cl etill n 
the identical names of their priraojenial tribes. Their i 
cusloms corresponding with Ihoseof the Israelites, sufficientw 
etears the subject. Besides, as hstb been hinted, they est 
some of their tribes by the names of cberubiuical figurei that 
■ earned on Uie four principal standards of hn ' 
is illustratious of the second argitmeut^ blei 
e of many others, have Iwea sutCuently gi' 
Fthlril chapter oftbii work. 

Under tha 3d argument, he says r "Agreeably Id the Iheoc-l 
racy or divine goi-emraeut of Israel, the Indians thiuli the \ 
Deity to be the immediate head of their slate. All the 
tions of InJiBos are exceedingly intoxicated with reljgi 
pride, and imve an inexpressible contempt ol the while | 
_|p*ople.* They usedlocnllus in their war oralionts lAe OC' 
J \tarit4 people, liut tliej Qattrr themselves with the nanie of 
m^Vu beluiek people ! because their supposed ancestor?, as they 
affirm, were uuder the immediate goveroment of the Ueily, 
who was pi*esi:ut wiUi tUem in a very peculiar manner, and 
directed them by prophets, while Ihe rest uf the world wers 
ilUnsani) outlaws to Ihe oovonniit. — When theoldArchi- 
mugU!. or any one of their magi, is persuading the people at 
any one of their religious tolemaities to a strict observance of 
the Mbelored wifii'inefjveee^ be always calls them (Ae&c/oucrf 

LC theooTBcy, thftt God chose Ibem out of oil the i 
j1 u his pcculior anil beloved people; which alike emmates 
Ji the ithite Jew, and the red American with that steady 

* Within SO years thii trail ef luiliaB character a muiA 


hatred agnimt all the world «xcept lliemaelves i HDilrcniters 
Ibcm (in their opinion) lialeJ and despised by all." 

I^lia itlualrsttoiu of (he 4th nod a(h argiimcnli hare b«en 
given wilh those of other authors. 

Under the flth arguraeol he say? : " They count time after 
the niRQDer of the Hebrew), They divide the year into 
ipring, suuuneri autuma, and Hinler. They number tlieir 
year from any of those four periojs, for llicy iisve ao nama 
for a year, and Ihey aubdiride Uiese, and count the year by 
lunar nwQthi, like the Uraelilos, who counted by moona. The 
number and regular periods of the Indiana' religion) feaitr is 
a good hislorical proof (Mr. Adair adds) that they counled 
time by, and observed, a weekly Sabbnlh long after Iheir ar- 
rival on the Americau continent. They begin a year nt the 
first appearance of the firil new mooa of the vernal equinox, 
according to the ecelesiasliral year of iMoKs. Till the 70 
years captivity, (he tfrnelites had only numeral Dam« for the 
solar and liuiar mouths, axcept Abib and Ethamin ; the 
Ibrmer aignifying a green ear of corn ; and the latter robuit 
or valiant. And by (he fir^t of these, the Indinoa (as an ex- 
plicative) term their passover, which the trading people eaU 
Ihe gHtn corn dancs." Mr. A<lnir than pmceeda Insliow 
more luUy the Hmilarity between the ancient Inaeliteg wkI 
the Indians in their counting lime, as has been noted. 

Under the Tth armament he Bays : "^ In conformity to,<ir 
after the manner of the Jew>, the Indiau AmericanE liavt 
their prophets, high priests, and others of a religions «rdcr. 
At the Jews had a laneliwi sanctomm, (holy of lioliei) M> 
have all the Indian nations. There they deposit Ihrir oon- 
ylecrated vesicla ; — none of the laity daring 1o •pproaoh that 
/sHcred place. The Indian tradition says, that their forerathen 
/ were pmseraed of an cxtijiordinary ilivioe spirit, by which 
"■ By foretold thingsfulure.andcontroUeiithoGoninionoour'e 
nature : and tliis they transmitted to their offspring. pro- 
Jed Ihey obeyed the sacred laws annexed to it. bhtoallo, 
(Mr. Adrtir snys of those Indian!) is the tiamo of all their 
pricitV-orJer ; and their poutificalolHoe descends by itihoril- 
aucf. to Ihe eldoat. There are some traces of agreeinent, 
though ehielly lost, in their pontifical drc^. Belore tho lu- 
tliaa An'hioiagiis ofliciBies in makins (ho suppotcd holy Rre 
■|fcr the yearly atonement for sin, the jo^un (waiter of the 
^(hprieil) clotheshimwith a white ephod, which is n waist- 
— It withoat sleeves. In resemblance of the Urim and Thum- 
_i0ljhe.4merieau Arcliimagui wears a breast plaid ibdJ* of a 
■_ Vhite eontdi-shell with two boles bored in tlie middle ol it, 
through whiA ho pulsthe ends of au otti-rskinstrap.and 
fastens a buck horn while button to Ihe outside of HGh,ai if 
* lU of Uic preciout itotiet of the Urim." 


fa Ihis statement Mr. AJur esbibite evidence orwhirji be 
himself Boem uneonreiou!. He lays Ihe geaeral HHine ol' nil 
their prieitir order ii IthloaMa. And Ihe nBHie of the hipi 
priest's waiter is So|-an. ftlt.Faber (reniBrking upoolhis) 
Ihinkt Ibe former wurii it a corruption c)riKh-ilB.-eloah. a nan 
»f(}ad I see ori^init of 2 Kingi, ir. 31,33, 95.97, 40, aaJ other 
plnCGs. Anil of the latter word he eayg, " Sagan is the verf 
DHme by nhioh (ho Hebrews called the deputy ol the high 
priest, who supplied his olRce, und irho perfonuetl the (uuc- 
lions of it in the BbseDfc of the high priest. See Calmefi Diet. 

Here then is eridaoce to oar purpose, that those Indiana 
should «all (heir Older of priests, nad the high priest's waiter, 
by those ancieDl Hebrew nnmEs of a man of God, and a de- 
puty of the high priest. How could these events have oc- 
curred, had not those aitires been Hebrew, and btoufht 
down these iis-mei by Hebrew tradition ! 

tJnder the 8tb argument Mr. Adairga^s ; " The ceremo- 
nies of the Indians in their religious worship are more after the 
Mosaic iastitutioQ*, than of pagan imitation ; which could 
not be, if the majority of the old ualion were of heathenish 
descent. They are utter slrangera to all the gestures practis- 
ed by the pa^ns in their religious rites. 1'hey hare another 
appellative which with then it the m/stcriaiu easeDtial name 
of God i the lefrj^rnmtnafon, or great four lettered Dams, . 
which they never name in common speech. Of the lime and 
plaeei when and where they mention it, they are very parti- 
cular, and always with a solemn air. It is well known what 
sacred regard the Jews had to Ihe four Jetfered divine namei 

h^h prieil went into Ihe sancltiary at the cipinlion ofsini. 
Might nut the Indiana copy from them this sacred invocaljoiii 
Ye — he — vnOi ? Their method of invoking God In a solemn 
hymn with thai reverend deportmenl, and spending a full 
breath on each of the two (int syllables oflheawfvil divine 
Dsme, hnth a surprising analogy to the Jewigh custom, and 
such OS no other naliun or people, even with the advantage 
or written recordt, have retained, tt may be worthy of no- 
tice that they never prostrate themselves, nor bow their bo- 
dies to each other by way of salute or homage, though usual 
with the easlern nations ; except when they are maltingor 
renewing peace with slrangors, who come in the name of 

Mr. Adair proceeds lospenk of the peered adjuration of the 
Indians by thegrenland awful nome of God; the question 
being ashed, and the answer given. Yah, with a profound re- 
verence in a bowing poilure of body immediately before Ihe 
iBTecatioB •! ri>--Ac~uaA ; ttu> be cowidera to be Bi^tw, 



•Jjuring their witaSMes to give true eTidence, He aayi!, " II 
teenu exiotly to coincide vith ttio oonduct ofthellebreK 

Mr. Adiiir's otlior illiutrations under thii argumeati ia va- 
riou] r«as1j, failing, their ark. uid their ever refuting to eat 
the hullaw afthe (high of their guue.hare been auIHcieatly 
gireii,iaconDexioaiviib Iheteatimomeii of others to the suae 

Knoti^h bas also been eihibited under the 9lh, 10th nod 


Uii Jec the 13th he says ; " Engles of every kind Uiey es- 
teem unclean li>uU ; likewise ravens, craws, bats, buzzards, 
a wallows, aud every species of onl." This hccciDsiden as pre- 
cisely Hebrew ; as also their puriCcatioos of their priests ; 
and pui'ilicatioD for baiiag touched a dead body, or any ulhei 
uocleim thing. 

Under uio'tof his subsequent arguments the quotatioui be- 
[uro given have Leen sufficient. Under the 16th he says : 
" Before the Indians go to war, Ihey have many preperatory 
ceremonies afpurificalion and fasting like -vbal is recorded of 
the Israelites." Under the 31st he says i '^ The suTvivme; 
brother hj the Mosaic law was to raise seed to a deoeased 
brother, who left a widow chilJlecs. The Indian cuetom 
looks tJie same way." 

Under the last srjument he says ; " The InJiaa tradition 
fays that thoir forefathers in vety remote agM eUDc froln a 
£ir(!is(ant country, where ull the people were of one colour ; 
and that in proceM of time they removed eastwanl to tlMW 
present settle meats." He notes and cunf.;>» some iJla fa- 
bulous stories which he says ** sprung from tlia imLovatiny 
superstitious ignorance of tiie popish priests to the soiilh- 
weit i" andspeslu of the iDdinattadttiou as being altogether 
more to be depeuded on. He says, " Thoy, (the rambling 
tribes of narlhera Indiuus excepted,) ever that Ihej came 
over the Mississippi from the westwurd, before they arrived 
at their present settleiuenta. This we see verified in ifa* 
western old towos they have left behind them, and by the 
situation of their old beluFed towns or places of refuge Ijiug 
about a west course from eiich different nation." 

"Ancient historjf (he adds) ia quite silent concerning Aoier^ 
icn, wliich indicates that it baa been time immcmurial, rent 
asunder from the eastern CMltiDent. The norlh-easl parts of 
Asia were also nniiiscovcred Ull of lete. Many geographen 
have stretched Alia and Ainerisa so far astojoin them to- 
gether; and othenhavedivided them into twoquarten of lh« 
globe. But the Runioiu, after aeverul dangerous attempt, 
have clearly convinced the world that thpy ore now divided, 
and yet bars a nmr cammmucation together by a canow 

eii^ l.a««age fron 

r Atticrica. By thit pxaiCT, il wai very 
praotioabiB to go to lhi» neir world, iiid sfterward lo hsTe 
proMviJedin qiieit ofiuilable clinulei. 

Thou wtiodiMeot from m; apinioa nfthe lailinn Ameri- 
•an oriifln, (he RdJs) ought to ioform ui hoir the Dstivet 
eatne hers, biii] by what Dieniu Ihey foiiDiJ Ehe long chain of 
rites and i^sloni: id similar lo the usage of the Hebrew nn- 
tiou.iDd io general dis^jmllHr Lo the moitesof (be pagan world 
Their religions rites, martial curtains, rtress, music, ilances am] 
domeitic form" of life,'Biini clearly to eviDoeBlso.lhal Ihoy came 
to America in early timet befuresecta had sprung np among 
the Jews ; which was loan after their propbeli c^aied i also 
befora arts and sciencea had arrived at B.Dy perfeclion. Other- 
wise it ia likely they would hare retained (ome knowledge 
•f them." 

We lenroinDr. RohertBon's history of AmericB,lhat the 
Meiicani had their tnidilion that " Their BOcestora canie 
from a. remote country situated to the north-west of Mexico. 
The Mexicana (he says) point out their variom slatioDB ni 
they adrancad from this iuto the itilerior provioeBis andil ia 
preciielylhe vimc rout which they must have held, jflhej 
had been emigranla from Asia."* 

Mr. Adair snje, that thougli wotB buTe lappojed ttie Amer- 
icnns to tn daioentlnnti frum the Chinese ; yet aeilher (heiT 
religion, lnws or customs agraa in the least With those of tb« 
CliinesB, which siifficienlly proves that they are not of thit 
lino. And he jay* the remaining traces of their religioni 
•eremonies, and civil end mnrlial customs, are dtffcreat from 
thme of the .ild Scythians. He thinks, therefore, that the 
old opinion that the Indians are desoeodeil from the Tartan 
or anracnl Soythians, should be exploded si weak and with- 
out fouadatian. Those who have advocated the aflirmBtive, 
have not been able to produte ranch, if any evidence, that 
any of the religious rites found among the ladiane, and rs- 
sembling those of ancient Israel, have ever been found nmon; 
any people in the east of Asia. Such a thing cannot be ex- 
pected. Those rites were arbitrnry, eslablished only in Is- 
rael; and designed to distin-uish them from all other na- 
tions. It ia utterly inadmissible then, to suppose these Indiaa 
rites may be accounted for. from M idea that the Indians may 
have learned them from other heathen nations. With very 
similar propriety might the unbeliever in di vine revelatioiL 
say, that the Jews and ancient Israel derved their religio 
(rum God, as the biblepurporU, but ft-oA the heathen ni 

(, 4, p^:e 41-2-3. 

lighljor aught ipe know, have had jurtsurt 

„ lei derJToJ these riles and cuslomj from 
i!ient AiintJP heaiheD ; Why have not tome of Ihose licBthen 
them>elve9 releitied lome of them, and diKcmlae 
Ihraligh some other parlx of the norld, beiidCE tht vast wilda 
•f North andSuuth America. 

Ca|it. Carver ie ahte to find thai tome of the people oorlh- 
eait of Asia ODce presBUled to same <il (he R,uEaiaDb ilieir 
pipe of peace. The people of braul, as Ihey paued by that 
people in ancient duy;, may have cnaght liiia cuelDm rrum 
them ; a; noue preteuil this wnE a Hcibreiv rsls. Or ihuiS 
few peoplt thugnoted m Asia ma-y have caught thii cui'tDm 
from the IndiaDsaierBerrmgVSl'TBit!. Hut thiF is nolhing, 
•ompftred with the many Hebrew riles Ibuud among Itie ua- 



in Carver, 


HVelled flvelhoUBBcd 


let among 

the InJis 

ju of Korth Amei 

nca, ()DteiBamacu-Ii 


by some 

of them i^ 

. relatic 

•a lo mamu^ aud ili 

■oe. i"bich 

ipJi hke th< 

we Ifntei: He »i 


1 "When 

one of their youDg 

IB filed on a young woman he ap- 

pmv* of, he disc^i 

ten hii 

. pas.ion to her pare. 


who gi». 

He I 






a whole 

done only while they ace young men, and for their first wife; 
and not repealed Ilka Jatob't seriitudB, When Ihii period 
is expirej, the marrjage it tolamijiied." 

■■When from nuy dislike (he addn) a teparation takes 
pTaGe,fDr they are iieldoni known to quu.rrel,1hey generally give 
their frieuds a lew days notice of their intention, and tome- 
time) oBrr reasons lo justify Ihcir conduct." Some Utile cer- 
emooiei follow ; and he says, " The separation it carried ua 
without any murmur^ngs, or ill will belWL-en the couple or 
their relaliona." Probably no olher nation bat tuch a reiom- 
blanee in Ihii retpect to incicnl Israel. 

Capt. Carver sayaaof the hidjuns "-wholly UDadullerated 
with the supers titiolpfcf Ihe uhurth of Rome ;" "It it cer- 
tain Ihey BPkuowleilge one Supreme Being, or giver of life, 
who pretiiles over all thing* — the Great Spirit i and they 
look up to him M the lourne of good — who is infinitely good. 
They also believe in a bad spirit, to whom they ascribe great 
power. They hold alto, that there are good tpiriti of a lesa 
degree, who bavt their parlicuUr departments, in which thay 
arr coaslaatly oontrihuling to the happiness of morlals." — 
" The prIeMs of (he Indians (he adds) who are at 
time tlieir physieiaui — Whilo they heal their wound! 
Ihcir diteuaea, Ihey interpret their dreami, and Mtitly ll 

apsire? of tenrrhing into futurit)'." But Capl. C'drrcr uailes 
with olhpr suthni? on the 9iibject,ia apeaking of the difficul- 
ty uf similar! amoog (hem obtuning much knowledge of 
their reli^oui riles. Hesnj^; "[tts rery difiumtl to Btlaia 
to a pcrfeel knowledge of tbe religious priticiplep of the In- 
iliaaa. Tbey endeavour to concenl tbem.'* It ia no wonder 
then, (hat Capl. Carver, passing' by them on a tour of up. 
wirlt of fire Ihamand mileK, diicovered bat few of theee 
mnny rite* resemblirg the religion of ancieot lirael, staled by 
Mr. Adair. Heaayt there was '•imr parliailar/analt aalom" 
bearing reaemblanoe to the rilej in the Mosaic Inw ; alladinff 
no Jaubt, to llie well known Indian geparatioa of women. 
Speaking of their " religious pnaciple^," which he says are 
" fcw and timpio," lie add;, " Ihey (the Indiana) have not do- 
TiDtcil, at mnny other UQcivilized nations, and loo many civ- 
ilizeij ones bn ve done, into idolatriiui modes of wonhip.^' — 
" On thp appearance of (Jie new moon they dance and sing ; 
but it ii not evident that they pay that planet any adorn- 
Here then, Dccotdiug Id this author, is their one God, iufl- 
nttrly good, the giver of life, and of all good, presiding over 
ail. and who it the only object of «'oH>ip; though theytome- 
limes be§ of tlio evil spirit to avert their calamitte?, whiebi 
in their opinion, he brings. Here are their good migcls.miii- 
iitering to the^od; here their prieiti; and a " particular 
female custum" inexplicable unlen by the Mwaio law. Here 
ia their firm ndherenoe to their " few timplc doolrines," or 
rites, lea deviating to idolatry Uiati nther uncivili«d, and 
even many civilized nntioni. Theae facts are lar from 
being Jeslitute of their fbn'orable bearing on our subject, — 
How should euch Ihingi be (rue of those savage:, were they 
■at the descendants of ancient Israel } 

It was observed in page 8B of this book, that Ihe Eeqimanx 
natives, and people round Ilild^on's Buy appear s dilferent 
race from tbe Amarican Indian-, end may have come fiam. 
the north of Europe. Capt. Carver Holes an oieerlion Iront 
Grot in*, thai "some of Ihe Norwc^niis passed into America 
by way nf Greenland." Tie also notes thai He Lnet girea 
"the ibllnwiug passa^ from the history of Walcr, Wntteii 
by David Fowe], in the year 1170. This blslory sa^ that 
Madoo, one of the Eoniof prince Owen Gwynnilh, being dis- 
gusted at tha civd wars which broke out l>e!ween his broth- 
ers, fitted out several veeels, and went in quest of new lands 
to the westward of [rsland." And he goes on to speak of 
of their planting a colony there. Here may be Ihe origiii of 
tlie people of GrrenlaDd, Iceland, and round Hudson's Buy, 
But it gives no satistactory account of the origin of the nil- 
luraiu Indian Irihu of America. 

Let U! look >t tlic QBtivu in an extreme part of 
Amemu, uul aes if they exhibil any erideDce similkr to wl 
has been aJiluced of the natives of North America. 

Don Aloaio de Ericille^ in hii hiilor; of Chili, ttji of 
□atires there ; *> The rdigiout lyitem of the Arftuonian 
itmple. They acknovleilge a Supreme Being, the nuthar 
all Ihiatp, whom Ihey obU PiIUd, a ward derived from Pi 
or I'llli, the soul ■, and aignifios the Suprenw Esiente. T, , 
cull him also, Guonu-pillui, the Spirit of Jleavcn; Bulk*'4 
Bon, the Greet Being; Thalcove, the Thunderer; Vilvep- 
voe, the Omnipotent ; Mollgelu, the Eternal; and Avnolu, 
the In&oite." He adds: "The universal gorcramMt of Pil- 
Un, Qia Supreme Essence,} i» a prototype of the Araui.'a- 
nian poUty. He is the gteot Toqui of the inviiiblj world." 
He •oce on to spent of his heviog BuborJiuale inviiJble be- 
iiu;i under him, to whom he commits the Bdmiai!l ration '' 

r^of Ic 


" lubaltemiivinilia." We may bei 
ditional notion of angels, good and bi 
the Indians of North Amcri" 

i author 
■ve they ai 

I but a 

.0 call 

>s is held by 

This author aaya of thia people ; " They all agreed in Qie 
belief of the immnrtality of the bouI. This consolatory 
truth i> deeply rooted, and in a manner uinate with them, — 
They hold that man|ij composed of two substances esaeotial- 
ly different; (he corruptible body and the soul, incorporeal 
an J eternal i" 

Of their funeml-, he lays ; " The bjcr is carried by the 
principal relations, and is surrounded by women who bewail 
the dpciaaed in the manner of the hired mourners among the 

He aUosays; "They have among them a tnditicnof a 
great deluge, in jrhich only a few perioas were saved, who 
lunk refu^ on a high mountain called The^heg, which poa* 
ses^edthe property of moving upon the water." 

Here then, it aeems the remote natives of Chili fa region 
1260 miles aouth of Peru, in South America,) fiiraisb their 
that they ori^aled in Ihe same family 
the North Ameriuan Indiins, and hold soioe of tbeit ei- 

the tradition of those natirei, of one 
ipreme Being, author of all things!" That he is the "Su- 
ime EsaencH ; the Spirit of Heaven ; the Thunderer ; the 
lipoteot; the Eteroal; (he Infinite?" Whence their 
tradition of the flood, and of savenil persom being nved on a 
^oaCi'^j'mountaiit.DiBBiiing an doubt ihe ark! Wlieuce Iheir 
'""- "' " immurlal svuH 

> autliur lays 

•eChilieiu, "Many^iippa 

U they are indigenous to Iho 0110117 1 wtiile othen l| 

r olher 


. .:! mformed or wiss men, it seems, retain m 
imprcisiom or their origiDEil enugrBtion from a fn reign InnJ, 
JinJ from the Qorlh-west, or Beering'i Straits, ts it posi: 
to give a eatis&otory arcouot of such tradiliooB amoug IhoBe 
native ladiBDs of Chill, tbort of their hsring received them 
frotn the Hebrew sacred scripturei .' Aud if from then 
lureljr they must be Hebrews. 

In Long's eipedilion to the Rocky Mounlaio, we \ef 
thnt the Omawhaw tribe of ladiiuic (who inhnbit the treat 
side of the Missouri River, fifty mitet above Engineer Can- 
tonmenl.) beliere in one Guii. They call .him Wahconda ; 
■nd believe him " (o be tbe greatest and best of beings ; the 
Creator and Preserver of all things ; Ibe Fountaiit of mystic 
raeilicine. Omniscience, omnipresence, and va^t power 
attributed to him. Aa^ he is supposed lo afflict them with 
■ioknets, poverty, or misfortune, for their evil deeds. la c 
remtiun be ii freijacntly appenleU to as aa evidence of the 
truth of their OMeverationi — "H'okcajida heart ickal I lay."" 

Thaaa Indians have maoy wild pagan notions of this ou« 
God. But they have brought down by Imdition, it see 
the above essentially correct view of turn, in opposition 
the polytheiitical world. 

Their name of God w remarhBhle— Wahcoads. It bat 
been ihown in the body of this worii, that variaus of tha la- 
iliani call God Yahewah, Ale, Yah, and Wah, dunbllesi Iroia 
the Hebrew name: Jehamli, Ale, Bnd Jah. And it has been 
slinwn that (liese eyllahles whirh compose the nume of God, 
are compounded in many Indian wurds, or form the ri 
from which they are ftrraed. Hero we find the ^aet ; whil* 
liie Luthor from whom tbe account i> taken, it is presomcd, 
liiid no perception of any sufh thing. Wuh-fonda ; the lut 
lyllulile of the Indian Tohewab, compounded with comla 
Or Jak, Wa}.^ Iheir monosyllable nume of God thus ct 
foilntled. Here is eviileave SEDon^ those children of tbe d 
ort, both as to the natare and the name of their one Gud, 
corrMpondiug with what has been exIiiLited of other tnbea; 
ami vary unacuoauiabla, if th>'y are not of the tribei of h- 

A relijgious custom, ruin toil by Mr. Long, goes to corrobor- 
ate Che opinion that these people are of Israel. He relatrv 
that from the llge of lielwacii live and Ibb yeare, their littllt 
Sims are obliged ;oa«!end nhill fastbg.mioe ortwicc aweclc 
during the months of Maich aud April, lo jjrsy aloud 
WibModn. Wheu thli 'eiisou uf the year arrives, tha uioth- 
er iutunDi llie httlu sou, that the "ice i> breakiD; up in 

; the Jucka Bitd °%eae nre migTuting.QQil it if Umo fi 

p or a hiU, inatructed b; the matber nbat to laj to 


him to have pitj> oa bim, a 

tliB appearance of deiccnding from HebreWi. 
iraaiiiDit, uian iVom any other uilicui on earth : teachiog 
their chilJren to fail in cla^, as " in dust aoJ ashee ;" and to 
cry to Jab far pity asd pi'oteEtioQ. Saeh are Itie ibreda of 
erideDGe ruruixhed, one here and another there, through tha 
wilda of America, sag^tiog what ii the raw) probable, ii' 
not eviileot origi". ofthenEtiveBof this continent. 

In the Percy Anecdote!, we hare an accoant that the Shaw- 
ano lodiana in an excuniau captured (he hidian warriar call- 
ed Old Sorannj, oi the Muskhoge tribe, and condemned him 
to a fiery torture. He told tbem the occasion of hit falling: 
into thoir haudi, was, he bad "forfeUed Ike proleclum ef th* 
Dininc Power bi/ aetne impurilj/ or other, vken carrying the 
holy art 0/ tear agaiml kit devoted enany. Here he recognit- 
ed Ihe one God, hii providenee. ipeak^ of his holy arlc borne 
Bglainst enemies, allud«> lo the purity of those who bear it, 
and if tbey became impure, the Divine Being; will fonnke 
Ihem. The bearing which ideas like these bar* OS OW anb- 
jei^l, Dteils no eiplanaliDn. 





Chaptkk 1. 

Deilraction of Jeniaaleni, 

Daacription of Jerasalem, 

" of the Temple, 

Christ foretelB th " ' 

of (he I 


Seven miraculout portenu of it, - 

Closes of the war, 

Factions of the Jews, --.-.- 

The Romnn army uailer Tilua »pproBchiiig, 

A prinlary fulfilmsnt of prophecies, . . . 

Chapter n. 

The certain rcjtorsUon of JuJah snJ Israel, - 
The expulsion of the leu thbei, . - - 

Jlrgametils in/aimir of a reiloralion, 
1. The distinct exiitence of the Jews,_ - 
S. Their pB>t partial anil chort possesiion of Canaan, 
3. Express predictions of the event, . . - 

I A mysticKl impart given lo these, iuadmiMible, 
Their expuliion wss literal, and Uieir restoralian 
cniPTBR in. 

The present atale of Juilnh and Israel, 

Stale of the Jews, -...-. 

State of Ihe len trihei, - . . . - 

Jews diipericd, UracI otiletul, . . . . 

Israel us such, is lo be restored, ... 

Hence the; mujt now have somewhere b distinct ex 
iMence; and God m'lit have provided iomi 
plaeo fnr Ihem for 2500 years. 

An necount in Etdras oftlieir going to such a place, 

le supposilioos in relnlion lo Iheni, 
lliesG luppiiutiona are true, .... 


I i 


i; I 


Argomenb to ihow that th« Anerieui Diiliv«! are the 

tribes of Israel — 

1. The]' BJIappearto have had DOE origin, - - 85 

f a. ThBirlangmLgeappflBra a torruption ofHebrCW, - Btt 

3- They have their holy urk, .... 93 

4. They have practieed clrcufflcisioo, . ■ -64 

5. Thoy hiiveone,a[ulDiily wie,GiHl, . . . ys 

6. TbeirrarietyaftraditiODievinca tbeyacethe de- 

tceDdanli ofbrael, ..... ]04 

7. A prediclioa rotative to their famiae of the nord, 107 

8. Testimony of William Peaa, - ' - - 119 

9. The tribe of Levi. lao 

10. Severa! appropriatatraitsof characler, - 121 
11- Theif beine in tribes, with heads of Iribes, - 123 

12. TheirplaoesDQSweringtolhecitieaofrefuge, - 183 

13. Other evidencei and coosidaralions, - • 1S5 
Ahinttoobjcctora, -..,.. laa 


An tuUress of Ae prophet Uaiah, - ■ . 131 

Freparatory consideration, ..... 131 

The ISth Chapter oriBaiah considered, - - 183 

An AJiJress to America, ..... 146 


1. The excommnnicBtioa of the Hebrews Jceply af. 

feeling. 153 

3. The Entail of tho Covenant rich, - - - I&4 

3. What t» first to be done for the Hebrews, - IfiG 

4. A ueiT view given of some prophetic passages, - 157 
3. New evidence faniished of the Divinity of tlic 

Bihle, Ifil 





Charlevoix, page 85. 
Dr. Edwards, 85, 88. 
Boudinot, 86, 93, 94, 98, 106, 
Du Pratz, 86, 96. 
Dr. Williams, 87, 99, 122. 
Pedro, 87. 
Unoa, 88. 

Aaair,89,93, 96, 115, 123, 

173, 178. 
Hutchinson, 91. 
Beatty, 94,109,112. 
M'Kenzie, 94, 108. 
Morez, 95. 
Hebard, 99. 
Giddings, 101, 102. 
Lewis and Clark, 103, 107. 

Hecberwelder, page 103. 

Gookin, 104. 

R. Williams, 104. 

Clavigero, 108, 

Col. Smith, 110. 

Bartram, 115,1 16. 

Carver, 115, 179. 

Penn, 119. 

Colden, 120. 

Morse, 169. 

Schoolcraft, 171. 

Long, 182. 

Robertson, 178. 

Powel, IbO. 

N. A. Review, 81. 

Don AJonzo de Ericilla, 181. 

Esdras, 75. 



58, line 1st from bottom, for unite read smite* 
64, line 1st from top, for Zech. read Zeph. 
72, line 10th from bottom, for xxxix. read xxxvii. 
75, line 19th from bottom, for least read Icisi, 

122, line 7th from bottom, for tines read tires. 

123, ine 5 from top, for fleshy read flashy, 
162, line 13 from top, for xvi* read xoii. 







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